Cases reported "Neuroaxonal Dystrophies"

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1/6. Neuroaxonal dystrophy with dystonia and pallidal involvement.

    Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is an autosomal recessive disease of infantile onset, characterised by progressive clinical course, multi-systemic involvement and widespread presence of dystrophic axons in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Clinical, neurophysiological and neuroradiological criteria of the disease are established, but the occurrence of atypical cases is known. Since the availability of molecular markers is still lacking, diagnostic evidence in vivo is provided by the presence of specific axonal lesions distally in the peripheral nerve fibres. In two children who had a protracted course of the disease with dystonic postures of the upper limbs and showed dystrophic axons following sural nerve biopsy, bilateral pallidal hypointensity was observed after T2-weighted MRI scans. These findings are consistent with iron deposition, and are usually observed in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (HSS), a condition which is also characterised by dystrophic axons diffusely present in the central nervous system, but without peripheral nervous system involvement. These observations raise the issue of different phenotypes of INAD, and are consistent with the existence of intermediate forms between INAD and HSS. Altered mechanisms of iron storage and transport to and from the cellular compartments may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
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keywords = peripheral nervous system, peripheral nerve, peripheral, nervous system, nerve
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2/6. Transganglionic gracile response following limb amputation in man.

    Gracile neuroaxonal dystrophy (nad) is an distinctive morphological alteration of central projecting axon terminals of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Experimentally, lower limb amputation has been shown to accelerate the formation of gracile nad, suggesting that the transganglionic response to peripheral axotomy may play a role in its development. To determine if a similar response occurs in the human sensory nervous system following peripheral nerve injury, we have performed postmortem histopathological examinations of the dorsal column nuclei of three patients (aged 15, 55, and 77 years old); all of whom had undergone accidental or therapeutic unilateral limb amputation (1 year, 38 years, and 1 year 8 months prior to death, respectively). In a 15-year-old man who underwent therapeutic leg amputation, the gracile nuclei on the transected side revealed reactive gliosis and many small axonal spheroids. The spheroids and fine neurites were immunolabelled with antibodies for growth-associated protein-43, ubiquitin and neuropeptide y (NPY). Neither routine histological nor immunohistochemical methods demonstrated comparable changes in the contralateral gracile nucleus. In a 77-year-old man who underwent leg amputation, the gracile nucleus on the amputated side was gliotic and showed several NPY and ubiquitin-immunoreactive spheroids, which were not seen in the contralateral non-transected side. A 55-year-old man with a history of accidental arm amputation showed well-developed nad in the cuneate nucleus only on the transected side. This study clearly demonstrates the occurrence of transganglionic response to limb amputation in human dorsal column nuclei. The extent of the regenerative and/or degenerative responses may vary depending on the age of the patient and the time interval following the peripheral axotomy.
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ranking = 0.022166487798208
keywords = peripheral nerve, peripheral, nervous system, nerve
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3/6. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and giant axonal neuropathy--overlap diseases of neuronal cytoskeletal elements in childhood?

    giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) and infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) are two progressive neurodegenerative disorders of childhood that have considerable clinical as well as histological overlap but are believed to be ultrastructurally distinct. The clinicopathological and ultrastructural features of three cases of INAD, two of whom are siblings and one case of GAN are described. The sural nerve biopsies in all four cases were essentially similar on light microscopy revealing giant axons. On electron microscopy, the findings in the case of GAN were typical with dense accumulation of neurofilaments within the giant axons. In the three cases of INAD, too, in addition to accumulation of mitochondria and organelles with vesiculotubular profiles, a similar increase in neurofilaments was evident. We, therefore, believe that these two disorders may represent a spectrum in evolution of intermediate filament pathology with various organelles participating in the temporal evolution of the disease process.
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ranking = 0.00014391060170753
keywords = nerve
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4/6. Distal infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy--a new familial variant with perineuronal argyrophilic bodies.

    We report on two sisters with an infantile onset of dyskinetic movements, tonic spasms, seizures and apneic spells. The condition deteriorated to a hypotonic "burnt out" stage by the age of 3 years in the older sister and to a stable dyskinetic condition by the age of 2.5 years in the younger one. A skin biopsy from the older sister revealed myelinated nerve fibers crowded with neurofilaments. The extensive investigation for neurometabolic disorder, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and ophthalmological and neurophysiological examinations were not especially revealing. The older sister died at the age of 3 years. The autopsy revealed no apparent loss of nerve cells in the brain and no sign of storage disease. However, silver-stained coarse granules, immunopositive for neurofilament polypeptide, were found around nerve cell bodies in the cortex and in the basal ganglia. Electron microscopy revealed perineuronal membrane-bound profiles filled with filaments. silver-stained axonal torpedoes were found in the cerebellum, but there were no spheroids. The substantia nigra, the locus ceruleus and the nucleus basalis of Meynert showed extensive perineuronal and perivascular swelling. homovanillic acid was severely reduced, while 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and hydroxymethylphenyl glycol were normal in the cerebrospinal fluid of the severely affected, autopsied case. The two cases are considered to represent a new form of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, characterized by the degeneration of perineuronal terminals in the cerebral cortex and in the basal ganglia, as well as by axonal degeneration in the cerebellum and peripheral nerves.
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ranking = 0.01683418960485
keywords = peripheral nerve, peripheral, nerve
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5/6. neurologic manifestations of Kanzaki disease.

    We describe the neurologic findings in a patient with alpha-n-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency (Kanzaki disease). Clinical and electrophysiologic studies revealed sensory-motor polyneuropathy, and sural nerve pathology showed decreased density of myelinated fibers with axonal degeneration. The patient had mildly impaired intellectual function with abnormal brain MRI and sensory-neuronal hearing impairment with repeated episodes of vertigo attacks. These findings suggest that Kanzaki disease may develop neurologic complications in the CNS and peripheral nervous system.
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ranking = 0.49158925077328
keywords = peripheral nervous system, peripheral, nervous system, nerve
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6/6. Conjunctival biopsy in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy.

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy with optic nerve atrophy and to discuss the diagnostic role of conjunctival biopsy. methods: We performed a complete ophthalmologic examination and a diagnostic conjunctival biopsy on a girl with a neurodegenerative disease. RESULTS: On the basis of "spheroid" inclusions in the unmyelinated axons, we diagnosed infantile neuoroaxonal dystrophy. CONCLUSIONS: optic atrophy is an important finding in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy, and conjunctival biopsy is a reliable and very convenient diagnostic test.
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ranking = 0.00014391060170753
keywords = nerve
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