Cases reported "Neuroblastoma"

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1/62. Neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder, preclinically detected by mass screening.

    BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of mass screening of infants for neuroblastoma, the incidence of neuroblastoma has increased in japan. The reason for this increased incidence is the possible inclusion of many neuroblastomas that would have regressed spontaneously and would never have been detected clinically. An extremely rare tumor at the dome of the urinary bladder in a 7-month-old infant was detected by the mass screening. methods: A case of neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder is reported with a review of the literature. The data in the japan Children's Cancer Registry are also reviewed to analyze the incidence and the site of origin of neuroblastoma for evaluation of mass screening. RESULTS: A 7-month-old female infant was referred because of a positive urine vanillylmandelic acid screening test. ultrasonography showed a solid mass attached to the urinary bladder. At laparotomy a 35 x 30 x 25-mm egg-shaped tumor was found at the dome of the bladder, and a partial cystectomy was performed. During the operation no changes in blood pressure occurred when the tumor was manipulated. Histologic diagnosis was rosette-fibrillary neuroblastoma originating in the bladder wall, with a favorable Shimada histopathologic classification. N-myc was not amplified, which predicted a favorable prognosis, and no postoperative chemotherapy was given. The patient was free of symptoms and tumor after a follow-up period of 16 months. literature review revealed that this was the second case of neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder ever reported in the world, although several cases of pheochromocytoma originating in the bladder wall had been reported. Both neuroblastoma and pheochromocytoma derive from the neural crest. The sympathogonia from the neural crest, a common stem cell, differentiates into a ganglion cell or into a secretory cell known as a chromaffin cell, able to manufacture catecholamines. The first case in the world that was reported as neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder was in a 4-month-old infant who was noted to have a 4-cm lower abdominal mass on routine physical examination. A ganglioneuroblastoma of the dome of the bladder was excised and the patient was doing well. On reviewing the japan Children's Cancer Registry, the incidence of neuroblastomas in infants has increased as well as the number of stage 1, 2, and 4s (stage 4 special) neuroblastomas since the introduction of mass screening. However, there has been no significant change in the number of stage 3 or 4 diseases diagnosed in older children. According to the japan Children's Cancer Registry, pelvic origin neuroblastoma, which has been noted to have spontaneous regression, was more frequent in the primary tumors detected by mass screening when compared with those presenting clinically. During preparation of this manuscript another case of bladder dome neuroblastoma was detected by urinary vanillylmandelic acid screening of 6-month-old infants for neuroblastoma in japan. CONCLUSION: These extremely rare cases of neuroblastoma of the urinary bladder involved children younger than 1 year of age and were incidentally detected by routine physical examination or mass screening. This raises the question of whether these tumors might have regressed spontaneously had they gone undetected and untreated.
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ranking = 1
keywords = ewing
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2/62. Metastatic neuroblastoma of the mandible mimicking osteogenic sarcoma radiologically. Case report.

    This paper presents a case of a neuroblastoma of the adrenal gland metastasizing to the mandible of a 21-month-old infant, which presented radiographically as the so-called 'sun-ray' appearance, characteristic of osteogenic sarcoma.
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ranking = 3.8878008405558
keywords = sarcoma
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3/62. incidence of occult cancer in children presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms: a 10-year survey in a pediatric rheumatology unit.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency and types of cancer found in children presenting to our Unit with musculoskeletal symptoms over a 10-year period. methods: The medical records of patients with musculoskeletal symptoms and a final diagnosis of cancer were reviewed. In each case age, gender, presenting symptoms, laboratory data, diagnostic procedures, provisional and final diagnoses, and time between clinical onset and correct diagnosis were reviewed. RESULTS: An underlying neoplasia was found in 10 of 1,254 patients (<1%) complaining of musculoskeletal symptoms. The types of malignancies found included acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (6 cases), lymphoma (2 cases), neuroblastoma (1 case), and Ewing's sarcoma (1 case). The mean time between disease onset and final diagnosis was 3.2 months. The most common presenting feature was monoarthritis, involving the larger joints such as the elbows, knees or ankles. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was the most frequent provisional diagnosis. In the preliminary hematologic evaluation, eight patients had an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or c-reactive protein (CRP) value. White blood cell (WBC) count was normal in almost all children, with a normal differential count. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) was raised in all children. bone marrow aspirates and lymph node or bone biopsies were necessary to reach the final diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: A malignancy should always be excluded in children with musculoskeletal symptoms, especially when the clinical pattern is not characteristic of a specific rheumatic disease. Routine laboratory tests may be misleading. The simultaneous presence of high LDH or alpha-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (alpha-HBDH) levels and raised ESR or CRP, even with normal blood cell counts, should lead to additional investigations. RELEVANCE: All patients presenting with arthritis or other musculoskeletal symptoms should have a thorough clinical examination. Disproportionate pain levels and an atypical pattern of "arthritis," especially in the presence of systemic manifestations, suggest a possible underlying malignancy.
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ranking = 0.77756016811116
keywords = sarcoma
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4/62. High-dose anthracyclines in the treatment of advanced primitive neuroectodermal tumors in adults--a single institution experience.

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare malignancies of presumed neural crest origin, most often presenting as bone or soft tissue masses in the trunk or axial skeleton, in children and young adults. Treatment of advanced PNET in adults is not clearly defined in the literature. Data concerning dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens for poor-risk patients with those tumors are sparse, due to rarity of PNET in adults, their diverse presentation, the variable treatment procedures applied and the absence of direct comparisons. On the other hand, the role of anthracyclines in the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas is well known and substantial. Six advanced PNET patients were treated at the Institute for Oncology and radiology of serbia, during last five years, with high-doses of doxorubicin or epidoxorubicin combined with cisplatin. The paper reviews each of our patients, discussing how does chemotherapy influence the outcome in these patients, in context of the feasibility of high-doses of anthracyclines in advanced settings. High dose anthracyclines (epidoxorubicin 150 mg/m2) in combination with cisplatin 120 mg/m2 induced a complete response lasting for 63 months in a patient with desmoplastic medulloblastoma of the cerebellum metastatic to bones and bone marrow. The same treatment but with the epidoxorubicin dose of 180 mg/m2 induced a complete response in a patient with olfactory neuroblastoma. Administration of high dose doxorubicin (75 mg/m2) seems feasible in association with irradiation treatment in patients with extraosseal Ewing sarcoma/PNET but the place of high dose chemotherapy within this setting remains to be determined.
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ranking = 1.5551203362223
keywords = sarcoma
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5/62. Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor arising in the adrenal gland--possible diagnostic pitfall in pediatric pathology: histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular study.

    We present an adrenal Ewing's sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT) arising in an 11-year-old Japanese boy. Although intensive chemoradiotherapy and radical surgery were performed, the patient died of obstinate disease 1 year and 3 months after the initial presentation. The primary site (adrenal gland) with radiologic findings (with foci of calcification), high titer of serum neuron specific enolase, and sheets of monotonous primitive rounded cells on histology mostly favored neuroblastoma. However, a diagnosis of ESFT was confirmed by immunohistochemical profile, including MIC2-positivity and molecular study disclosing EWS-FLI1 chimera gene verified by direct sequencing. Recognition of adrenal ESFT and use of newly developed diagnostic techniques are required for differential diagnosis of undifferentiated small round cell tumor of the adrenal gland.
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ranking = 3.8878008405558
keywords = sarcoma
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6/62. osteosarcoma as a second malignancy after treatment for neuroblastoma.

    A 4-month old girl was diagnosed as having stage IV neuroblastoma of the right adrenal gland. Preoperative chemotherapy was given, followed by local surgical excision. Postoperatively, irradiation of the tumor bed and adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 11 months. Nine years after cessation of chemotherapy, the patient developed left hip-joint pain. biopsy of the ischium showed chondroblastic osteosarcoma. limb salvage surgery was performed after preoperative chemotherapy. Postoperatively, adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 14 months. Twenty-two months after treatment for the secondary osteosarcoma, the patient has been remained in disease-free condition without any evidence of relapse. A second osteosarcoma occurring outside the radiation field after treatment for neuroblastoma is quite rare. This unusual case emphasized the need for close monitoring for development of second malignant neoplasms in survivors of neuroblastoma even in the absence of a known predisposing factor, such as radiation therapy.
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ranking = 5.4429211767781
keywords = sarcoma
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7/62. Subsequent cancer in patients with Ewing's sarcoma.

    Among 31 long-term survivors of Ewing's sarcoma, two patients developed second primary cancers, compared to an expected number of 0.03 (relative risk = 72; 95% confidence limit = 8-259). One patient had renal medullary neuroblastoma, which is not known to be related to Ewing's tumor or its therapy. The second patient had a bone fibrosarcoma, arising at the primary tumor site, which was thought to be radiation-induced. The risk of radiation-induced bone sarcomas was lower, although not significantly so, than in a recently reported series of Ewing's tumor. These two reports suggest that patients with Ewing's sarcoma have a tendency to develop radiogenic sarcomas following primary megavoltage radiation therapy. The lowest radiation dose consistent with local tumor eradication should be employed to minimize the risk of subsequent radiogenic cancer.
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ranking = 6.9980415130005
keywords = sarcoma
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8/62. Hematogenous brain metastasis in children.

    Hematogenous brain metastases are uncommon in childhood. Three patients and a literature review that includes centers reporting up to 36 years of experience are presented in this study. The total of 2,040 patients includes our three examples of one neuroblastoma, one hepatoblastoma, and one adrenal carcinoma. Cerebral hematogenous metastases were reported in 4.4% of 429 patients with neuroblastoma, 1.9% of 574 rhabdomyosarcoma patients, 6.5% of 386 patients with osteosarcoma, 3.3% of 487 Ewing sarcoma patients, 3.6% of 44 melanoma patients, 13.5% of 37 patients with germ cell tumors, and 1.3% of the 78 patients with wilms tumor. Five miscellaneous patients included three with a hepatoblastoma and one each with adrenal carcinoma and nephroma. All of the large series reports have been published in oncology journals.
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ranking = 2.3326805043335
keywords = sarcoma
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9/62. rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit in the newborn.

    A full-term black boy had a 2- to 3-cm, round, bluish mass on his right lower eye-lid at birth, later diagnosed as rhabdomyosarcoma. It was cystic in nature and extended into the nasal cavity. The tumor was initially classified as neuroblastoma. The child died eitht months later and necropsy report confirmed an original ophthalmologic pathology diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
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ranking = 4.665361008667
keywords = sarcoma
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10/62. Second malignancies in children with neuroblastoma after combined treatment with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.

    BACKGROUND: (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) is selectively taken up by cells of neural crest origin, allowing targeted radiotherapy of tumors such as neuroblastoma (NB) and pheochromocytoma. Radiotherapy may provide additional benefits in the treatment of NB, with moderate side effects such as hematologic and thyroid toxicity. However, with longer follow-up, other complications might occur. We describe our experience with second cancers occurring in children treated with (131)I-MIBG and chemotherapy. methods: The clinical records of 119 consecutive NB cases treated with (131)I-MIBG at a single institution between 1984 and 2001 were reviewed for the occurrence of a second malignant neoplasm (SMN). RESULTS: overall, five cases of SMN occurred in the study patients. In particular, two cases of myeloid leukemia, one of angiomatous fibrous histiocytoma, one of malignant schwannoma, and one case of rhabdomyosarcoma were detected. The schwannoma and the rhabdomyosarcoma developed within the residual neuroblastic mass after first-line therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Should (131)I-MIBG treatment become more broadly employed in the therapeutic strategy for neuroblastoma, the risk of second cancer will have to be taken into consideration. The organization of an international registry of subjects treated with (131)I-MIBG might better define the frequency and features of second malignancies following this radiometabolic approach.
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ranking = 1.5551203362223
keywords = sarcoma
(Clic here for more details about this article)
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