Cases reported "Neurocytoma"

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1/21. Cytologic features of central neurocytomas of the brain. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Although cytologic smears are major tools for intraoperative diagnosis of intracranial tumors, cytologic features of central neurocytoma, a tumor that has been recognized for only about 15 years, have not been described. CASES: Typical central neurocytomas were encountered in three patients: 40 years old/M, 44/M and 31/F. Intraoperative cytologic smears were reviewed, and all tumors were subsequently examined by conventional histology, immunohistology and, in one case, electron microscopy. The important cytologic appearances were sheets of round cells with finely stippled nuclear chromatin and perinuclear haloes. Calcospherites, neuropil islands and rosettelike structures were focally encountered. The background neuropil was finely fibrillated, but the tumor cells possessed no appreciable cellular processes. CONCLUSION: Central neurocytomas possess distinct cytologic features that help with the intraoperative distinction from oligodendrogliomas and other intraventricular tumors. A combined radiologic and morphologic approach to the diagnosis of this tumor is advised.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rosette
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2/21. A distinctive glioneuronal tumor of the adult cerebrum with neuropil-like (including "rosetted") islands: report of 4 cases.

    Four examples of a novel glioneuronal neoplasm are presented. All tumors affected adults (including two males and two females aged 25-40 years) as supratentorial, cerebral hemispheric masses with associated seizure activity and, in one case, symptoms of raised intracranial pressure and progressive hemiparesis. CT scans in two cases revealed hypodense masses without calcification. MRI scans at presentation demonstrated, in all cases, solid T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense tumors with mass effect in one instance but no edema or contrast enhancement. Only one was relatively circumscribed on neuroradiologic study. All were infiltrative in their histologic growth pattern and predominantly glial in appearance, being composed mainly of fibrillary, gemistocytic, or protoplasmic astroglial elements of WHO grade II to III. Their distinguishing feature was their content of sharply delimited, neuropil-like islands of intense synaptophysin reactivity inhabited and rimmed in rosetted fashion by cells demonstrating strong nuclear immunolabeling for the neuronal antigens NeuN and Hu. These cells included small, oligodendrocyte-like ("neurocytic") elements as well as larger, more pleomorphic forms. Two cases contained, in addition, well-differentiated neurons of medium to ganglion-cell size. Proliferative activity was observed principally within the glial compartment; two cases contained mitotic figures and exhibited relatively elevated MIB-1 indices (6.8% and 8.2%). One of the latter progressed and proved fatal at 30 months following subtotal resection and radiotherapy. The three other patients are alive at intervals of 14 to 83 months, two tumor-free and one with extensive disease associated with the appearance of enhancement on MRI. This glioneuronal tumor variant may pursue an unfavorable clinical course.
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keywords = rosette
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3/21. spinal cord glioneuronal tumor with "rosetted" neuropil islands and meningeal dissemination: a case report.

    Distinctive glioneuronal tumors arising within the cerebrum and displaying neuropil-like islands and tumor cells immunoreactive for neuronal and glial antigens have recently been described. We report a similar tumor in the cervico-thoracic region of the spinal cord in a 44-year-old woman that recurred 1 year later with dissemination to the lumbar dura and cauda equina. The tumor was composed of "rosetted" neuropil islands displaying immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, whereas the intervening tumor cells were more fibrillar and immunoreactive for GFAP. The tumor cell nuclei immediately surrounding these neuropil islands were immunoreactive to the newly characterized neuronal marker, anti-Hu. While several cases of neurocytomas have been described in the spinal cord, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a glioneuronal tumor with "rosetted" neuropil islands to be reported in the spinal cord.
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keywords = rosette
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4/21. So-called malignant and extra-ventricular neurocytomas: reality or wrong diagnosis? A critical review about two overdiagnosed cases.

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is described as a rare intra-ventricular benign neuronal tumor of the brain. Two primary tumors first diagnosed as malignant and extra-ventricular neurocytomas are reported here. Histologically, the tumor of the first patient, a forty-one-year-old man, consisted of monotonous cells with round nuclei, but no fibrillar background. The second tumor, in a nineteen-year-old girl, showed areas of moderately pleomorphic round cells, with numerous rosettes and ganglion cell differentiation, in an abundant fibrillary network. Both presented calcifications. Mitoses were more frequent in recurrences and spinal locations than in the primaries. All tumors stained strongly for synaptophysin, and GFAP was partly positive in the first case only. patients received post-surgical radiotherapy and were still alive eight and six years, respectively, after initial surgery. The interpretation of atypical cases, such as ours is not easy: the diagnoses finally retained were oligodendroglioma in the first case and ganglioneuroblastoma in the second case. Furthermore, neurocytomas atypical either by their unusual topographical or histological presentation or by their poor prognosis, have been frequently entitled in this way on synaptophysin positivity. So, we were prompted to reassess the entity of CN, seventeen years after the first description, to re-appreciate the reality of anatomo-clinical variants and to discuss the value of synaptophysin positivity in these tumors. In conclusion, it seems preferable to individualize true classical CN, which has a favorable outcome, from so-called extra-ventricular, atypical and anaplastic, clinically malignant neurocytomas for which complementary treatment is required.
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keywords = rosette
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5/21. Central neurocytoma presenting with intratumoral hemorrhage.

    A 22-year-old woman presented with acute onset of headache and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated hydrocephalus and a huge midline mass with heterogeneous density involving both lateral ventricles. A small amount of hematoma was detected at the bottom of the left trigone. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the mass appeared grossly isointense on T1-weighted images and slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted images with a clearly demarcated low intensity area at its center. These CT and MRI findings were suggestive of an acute hemorrhagic event within the tumor. The presence of hemorrhage was confirmed at surgery. Sudden hemorrhages within the tumor were considered to cause the acute onset of symptoms. Although central neurocytoma is not commonly known as a tumor-producing intracranial hemorrhage or to cause abrupt clinical deterioration, we found five similar cases in the literature. After reviewing these cases, we concluded that the information on the possible hemorrhagic complication of central neurocytoma is important for correct diagnosis and thus for proper management of this tumor.
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ranking = 0.0010002934086122
keywords = formation
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6/21. Management of neurocytomas: case report and review of the literature.

    The purpose of this report is to review the available literature on the presentation, pathology, and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) neurocytomas. A case report of an extraventricular neurocytoma is presented along with a comprehensive literature search of patients with a diagnosis of CNS neurocytoma. CNS neurocytomas are rare neoplasms, with fewer than 240 cases reported in the literature. The majority of neurocytomas are found in the ventricular system of the brain. immunohistochemistry is frequently used to help distinguish this tumor from other CNS neoplasms. MIB-1 proliferation index is commonly used in an attempt to predict biologic behavior. Little is known about the management of patients with this tumor, because most reports are from the pathologic literature and contain sparse information regarding clinical management. Neurocytomas are rare CNS tumors with varied biologic behavior. MIB-1 index may help direct adjuvant therapy. An excellent prognosis can be expected if a gross total resection is achieved. Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) may be considered after subtotal resection. Otherwise, RT is an option for medically inoperable or recurrent disease.
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keywords = formation
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7/21. Cerebellar liponeurocytoma. Case report and review of the literature.

    Cerebellar liponeurocytoma is a rare tumor of the posterior fossa that has many morphological similarities to medulloblastoma and neurocytoma. Recently the world health organization working group for classification of central nervous system neoplasms adopted the term "cerebellar liponeurocytoma" to provide a unified nomenclature for a tumor variously labeled in the literature as lipomatous medulloblastoma, lipidized medulloblastoma, medullocytoma. neurolipocytoma, lipomatous glioneurocytoma, and lipidized mature neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum. The rarity of this tumor and paucity of pertinent information regarding its biological potential and natural history have resulted in the application of various treatment modalities. It is suggested in the available literature that these lesions have a much more favorable prognosis than typical medulloblastomas, and that adjuvant therapy for liponeurocytoma need not be as extensive as that administered for medulloblastomas.
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ranking = 0.0010002934086122
keywords = formation
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8/21. fourth ventricle central neurocytoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Central neurocytomas (CNs) are typically located in the lateral ventricle. Primary origins in the fourth ventricle are very rare. We discuss the clinical symptoms, imaging findings, and microscopic features of these rare tumors. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We report a case of a fourth ventricle CN in a 35-year-old male patient with the initial symptoms of progressive headaches and blurred vision for more than 2 months. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a slightly enhanced tumor in the fourth ventricle, with obstructive hydrocephalus. INTERVENTION: Total surgical removal of the tumor was performed. The tumor was initially diagnosed as an oligodendroglioma. The final definitive diagnosis as a CN was made after special immunohistochemical studies. CONCLUSION: CNs located in the fourth ventricle are extremely rare. Immunohistochemical stains and transmission electron microscopy can provide useful diagnostic information. Total tumor excision is associated with favorable prognoses. Postoperative radiotherapy may be considered for cases of subtotal excision, anaplastic histological variants, or recurrent tumors.
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ranking = 0.0010002934086122
keywords = formation
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9/21. Oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation. A report of 4 cases with diagnostic and histogenetic implications.

    oligodendroglioma represents a distinct type of diffuse glioma with a relatively favorable prognosis. Although an O2A-like glial progenitor cell of origin has been suggested, a neuronal-oligodendroglial progenitor cell is also of interest, particularly because variable degrees of neuronal marker expression have been reported in typical oligodendrogliomas. We present 2 female and 2 male patients (ages 34-54) with frontal lobe oligodendrogliomas containing a) morphologically distinct collections of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, b) well-formed Homer Wright-like and perivascular rosettes, and c) demonstrable neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemistry and/or electron microscopy in the rosette-associated regions. Unlike extraventricular neurocytomas, these cases featured an infiltrative growth pattern and a classic oligodendroglioma immunophenotype in non-rosette bearing portions of each tumor. FISH analysis demonstrated chromosome 1p and 19q codeletions in 3 (75%) cases, both in regions with and without rosettes. Recurrences were common, although all patients are currently alive 4 months to 13 yr from initial diagnosis. Based on clinicopathologic and genetic features, we diagnosed these tumors as oligodendrogliomas with neurocytic differentiation. However, it is unclear whether they represent a) gliomas with divergent neuronal differentiation, b) a distinctive form of glioneuronal neoplasm, or c) a reflection of glioneuronal histogenesis in oligodendrogliomas in general. In any case, their occurrence suggests a histogenetic overlap between oligodendroglioma and extraventricular neurocytoma not previously recognized.
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ranking = 4
keywords = rosette
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10/21. Peritoneal dissemination from central neurocytoma: case report.

    OBJECTIVE: Central neurocytoma is a low grade tumor of neuroglial origin and a relatively new histological entity. Only a few cases have been reported and its biological behavior is still uncertain. Some cases have shown an aggressive behavior (local recurrence, malignant dedifferentiation or CSF dissemination) and challenged the initial view of its relative benignity. A case of central neurocytoma with peritoneal dissemination is presented. CASE: A six years-old boy with recurrent neurocytoma of III ventricle and left thalamus showed fast growth of tumor rest and ascites three and a half years after subtotal removal of the lesion. Tumor cells were identified in the ascitic fluid and implanted in the peritoneum. Chemotherapy was initiated immediately after diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination (etoposide, carboplatin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide). The patient developed metabolic imbalance and respiratory failure due to rapid formation of ascitic fluid and died 3 days after the diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination was established. CONCLUSION: Central neurocytoma is a low grade tumor with low values of the proliferative index in the majority of cases. In spite of that, some tumors may present a very aggressive behavior and extraneural dissemination. Evaluation of proliferative index may be a guideline parameter for planning adjuvant therapies after surgical treatment in selected cases. Extraneural dissemination may occur in some cases specially in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.
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