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1/7. Alexander's disease: a case report of a biopsy proven case.

    A case of infantile onset Alexander's disease in a two and a half year old male child is presented, who had progressively increasing macrencephaly since birth. A frontal lobe biopsy revealed collections of Rosenthal fibres in the subpial and perivascular areas with diffuse dysmyelination and presence of reactive astrocytes. The Rosenthal fibres were immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and ubiquitin. Electron microscopic examination showed the Rosenthal fibres as intra-astrocytic and extracellular granular osmiphilic collections.
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2/7. 4-repeat tauopathy sharing pathological and biochemical features of corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    We report a 67-year-old man with 4-repeat (4R) tauopathy sharing both features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Although CBD and PSP have a common pathological feature that 4R tau accumulates in neurons and glia, recent pathological studies have confirmed differences between the two disorders. Clinical features of the present case were asymmetrical apraxia, parkinsonism, memory disturbance, disorientation and left limb myoclonus with a 5-year history. Pathological features were the widespread occurrence of 4R tau-positive structures including pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles, astrocytic plaques, tufted astrocytes, coiled bodies and argyrophilic threads. Biochemically, immunoblotting of insoluble tau demonstrated the low molecular fragments of 37 kDa and 33 kDa observed in typical CBD and PSP, respectively, in addition to the presence of 4R tau isoforms. The present case shared tau-related pathological and biochemical features of CBD and PSP. These findings support that CBD and PSP are closely associated disorders having a pathogenesis common to 4R tauopathy.
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3/7. Discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP.

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are often clinically confused with each other. Moreover, the discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP are still controversial. We report here two atypical cases of PSP and CBD. A 73-year old woman was admitted with right hand rigidity, limb kinetic apraxia and cortical sensory loss. Brain atrophy, hypoperfusion and hypometabolism predominantly in the left frontoparietal lobes indicated CBD clinically. Pathological studies revealed neuronal loss and spongy change without ballooned neurons (BN) in the cerebral cortex. Modified Gallyas-Braak (G-B) staining revealed neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and tufted astrocytes, indicating pathological diagnosis of PSP. A 75-year-old man admitted with vertical gaze palsy, neck dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. atrophy of the frontal lobes and tegmentum of the midbrain and symmetrical frontal hypoperfusion in SPECT indicated PSP. However, neuronal loss and BN in the frontal lobes and clusters of astrocytic plaques indicated CBD pathologically. The G-B staining was useful for differentiating between CBD and PSP, but our atypical cases bring up a new issue about differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP.
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4/7. Co-localization of beta-peptide and phosphorylated tau in astrocytes in a patient with corticobasal degeneration.

    The co-localization of amyloid beta (Abeta) and phosphorylated tau in astrocytes in a patient with corticobasal degeneration is described. At autopsy, the present case exhibited neuropathological findings compatible with those of corticobasal degeneration, including atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, neuronal loss and gliosis in the cortical and subcortical regions, and presence of cortical ballooned neurons and astrocytic plaques. Moreover, many senile plaques were found in the cerebral cortex. There were also clusters of Abeta-positive granules associated with astrocytic cytoplasm and processes in the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. In the entorhinal cortex, the Abeta-positive granules were occasionally co-localized with phosphorylated tau-positive fibrillary structures in the astrocytic cytoplasm. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of co-localization of Abeta and phosphorylated tau in astrocytes. This phenomenon implies that phagocytosis of Abeta coincides with production of phosphorylated tau in the same reactive astrocytes.
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5/7. Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids: clinical, pathologic and genetic studies of a new kindred.

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by cerebral white matter degeneration with axonal spheroids leading to progressive cognitive and motor dysfunction. We report clinical and pathological features, as well as molecular genetic analysis, of a family with HDLS. A pedigree consisting of 27 persons in 5 generations contained 6 affected individuals. dementia and depression were common; two individuals presented with a syndrome resembling corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Postmortem neuropathologic evaluation of three affected individuals revealed enlargement of the lateral ventricles and marked attenuation of cerebral white matter, but preservation of white matter in brainstem and cerebellum, except for the corticospinal tract. Histopathologic studies showed a loss of myelinated fibers, lipid-laden macrophages and bizarre astrocytes, as well as abundant axonal spheroids that were immunoreactive for phosphorylated neurofilament protein and amyloid precursor protein (APP), but not alphaB-crystallin and variably with ubiquitin. By electron microscopy, axonal spheroids contained aggregates of intermediate filaments or of organelles that were predominantly vesicular and lamellar. The cerebral cortex had focal neuronal degeneration with alphaB-crystallin-immunoreactive ballooned neurons. In summary, the present report describes a previously unreported kindred with HDLS with individuals presenting as CBD. immunohistochemistry for APP and alphaB-crystallin demonstrates distinctive neurodegeneration in cerebral axons and perikarya.
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6/7. Rosenthal fiber encephalopathy in a dog resembling alexander disease in humans.

    A young male Bernese mountain dog presented with neurologic abnormalities consisting of nonambulatory tetraparesis, generalized tremors, and depressed mental status. At necropsy only a mild enlargement of the lateral ventricles was seen. The histologic examination revealed the presence of eosinophilic deposits consistent with Rosenthal fibers (RFs) throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. There was also a marked proliferation of abnormally large astrocytes and limited myelin changes. RFs were most prominent in perivascular, subpial, and subependymal areas, where they were perpendicularly located, producing a pallisaded arrangement. Immunohistochemically, RFs were strongly positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and when they were examined ultrastructurally they appeared as electron-dense amorphous masses located within the processes of astrocytes, most particularly in the perivascular feet. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings of this canine case were consistent with the published neuropathologic descriptions of alexander disease in humans and in a few dogs, a rare condition that in humans has been shown to be caused by dominant mutations in the GFAP gene.
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7/7. Can secondary degeneration accelerate the formation of neurofibrillary tangles? A case of hemispheric infarction showing asymmetric degeneration of the substantia nigra, red nuclei, inferior olivary nuclei and dentate nuclei with concomitant changes of progressive supranuclear palsy.

    A case of hemispheric infarction involving the territory of the right middle cerebral artery and the thalamus showed conspicuous asymmetric degeneration in the substantia nigra, red nuclei, inferior olivary nuclei and dentate nuclei with concomitant changes of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The right substantia nigra and red nucleus showed loss of neurons and proliferation of astrocytes. The right olivary nucleus was hypertrophic, while the neuronal loss and astrocytosis in the dentate nucleus were predominant on the contralateral side. Modified Gallyas-Braak staining revealed the extensive distribution of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), threads and intraglial argyrophilic structures in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei, cerebral cortex and dentate nuclei, as well as in the affected brain stem nuclei, with a distinct predominance on the affected side. In this case, the one-sided predominance of the extended degeneration in these brain stem and cerebellar areas is considered, in addition to the PSP changes, to be due to secondary retrograde degeneration via the nigrostriatal and dentato-rubro-thalamic pathways following the hemispheric infarction, and to also be the result of disruption of the dentato-olivary fiber connections. In addition, because of the predominant distribution of NFTs on the more degenerated side, it is surmised that the formation of NFTs may be accelerated by secondary degeneration.
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