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1/33. White matter hyperintensities on MRI in a patient with corticobasal degeneration.

    We describe a patient who presented with the clinicopathological features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Over the course of 8 years, the patient developed myoclonus, dystonia, and supranuclear gaze palsy associated with an akinetic-rigid syndrome. To our knowledge, no previous report of a patient with CBD has described clear-cut regional white matter changes as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In our patient, a T2-weighted MR image of the brain showed focal atrophy of the bilateral frontal cortex and asymmetric regional hyperintensities of the subjacent white matter. These signal changes seemed to primarily reflect the progression of neuronal degeneration, especially the demyelination secondary to axonal loss or change.
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keywords = cortex
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2/33. magnetic resonance imaging findings in corticobasal degeneration.

    Two women (patient 1, 77 years old, and patient 2, 63 years old) with strong clinical evidence for corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are presented. Patient 2 was in an early stage of the disease with only a mild disability of her left hand. In addition to the clinical characteristics, both patients presented the typical cortical reflex myoclonus. magnetic resonance imaging studies for both patients revealed nearly identical hyperintense lesions somatotopic from the left-hand primary motor cortex (M1), extending to the midline and possibly supplementary motor area (SMA) in patient 2. To our knowledge, this has not been previously described in patients with CBD. These lesions may play a role in the etiology and the development of CBD with involvement of the M1 and may correspond to the underlying pathology of demyelination or gliosis.
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keywords = cortex
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3/33. Alzheimer's disease pathology in motor cortex in dementia with lewy bodies clinically mimicking corticobasal degeneration.

    We report here a 70-year-old woman whose initial clinical presentation suggested corticobasal degeneration, but autopsy revealed dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type pathology accentuated in the motor cortex, in conjunction with a high burden of both cortical and brain stem LB. review of the literature disclosed four patients with AD whose peri-Rolandic region was particularly involved by the disease and who exhibited similar clinical and neuropathological findings as in our patient except they lacked LB. It appears that DLB if associated with severe AD-type pathology can, like some unusual cases of AD, mimic corticobasal degeneration.
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keywords = cortex
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4/33. Tau gene mutation G389R causes a tauopathy with abundant pick body-like inclusions and axonal deposits.

    Exonic and intronic mutations in Tau cause familial neurodegenerative syndromes characterized by frontotemporal dementia and dysfunction of multiple cortical and subcortical circuits. Here we describe a G389R mutation in exon 13 of Tau. When 38 years old, the proband presented with progressive aphasia and memory disturbance, followed by apathy, indifference, and hyperphagia. Repeated magnetic resonance imaging showed the dramatic progression of cerebral atrophy. Positron emission tomography revealed marked glucose hypometabolism that was most severe in left frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical regions. Rigidity, pyramidal signs and profound dementia progressed until death at 43 years of age. A paternal uncle, who had died at 43 years of age, had presented with similar symptoms. The proband's brain showed numerous tau-immunoreactive Pick body-like inclusions in the neocortex and the fascia dentata of the hippocampus. In addition, large numbers of tau-positive filamentous inclusions were present in axons in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Immunoblot analysis of sarkosyl-insoluble tau showed 2 major bands of 60 and 64 kDa. Upon dephosphorylation, these bands resolved into 4 bands consisting of three- and four-repeat tau isoforms. Most isolated tau filaments were straight and resembled filaments found in alzheimer disease and some frontotemporal dementias with tau mutations. A smaller number of twisted filaments was also observed. Biochemically, recombinant tau proteins with the G389R mutation showed a reduced ability to promote microtubule assembly, suggesting that this may be the primary effect of the mutation. Taken together, the present findings indicate that the G389R mutation in Tau can cause a dementing condition that closely resembles Pick's disease.
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5/33. A progressive category-specific semantic deficit for non-living things.

    We report a longitudinal study of a patient, ES, with a progressive degenerative disorder resulting from generalised cerebral atrophy. Across a range of tasks, ES showed a greater difficulty in recognising and naming artifacts than living things. This deficit for artifacts emerged over time, as she became more severely impaired. In one task, picture naming, there was a crossover from an initial deficit for living things to the later artifact deficit. All materials were carefully controlled to rule out potential confounding factors such as concept familiarity or age of acquisition. There was no evidence that ES's deficit for artifacts was associated with a greater loss of functional than visual information. The pattern of results are consistent with a recently proposed distributed connectionist model, in which a deficit for artifact concepts can emerge as the result of severe, general damage to semantic memory.
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ranking = 0.009379621864482
keywords = visual
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6/33. apoptosis in leukoaraiosis.

    We report a case of leukoaraiosis that was studied for apoptosis. In the neuropil, the number of cells that showed dna fragmentation was 2.5 times as great in the area of leukoaraiosis as in the adjacent white matter (P = .004) and 25 times as great as in the nearby cortex (P < .001). Our findings suggest that apoptosis, predominantly of oligodendrocytes, is involved in the pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis. Within the area of leukoaraiosis, we also found numerous small veins that were partially occluded by severe collagenous thickening of the vessel walls. This collagenosis may have contributed to or resulted from chronic ischemia in that area.
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keywords = cortex
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7/33. Contribution of PET studies in diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration.

    Five patients with clinical features of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) were studied with PET imaging. The main clinical findings included a unilateral extrapyramidal motor disorder, without significant response to levodopa, as well as clumsiness, dysarthria, apraxia and a clear asymmetry of neurological signs. PET studies with (18)F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose disclosed mainly a significant hypometabolism in the thalamus and motor cortex controlateral to the more affected limbs. Additional relationships between individual clinical signs and PET data were also found. We concluded that PET findings supported the clinical diagnosis of CBD, although the specific pattern related to this condition needs to be more precisely defined. Further studies are especially needed to correlate clinical data and PET results with pathological examination.
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keywords = cortex
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8/33. Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease and juvenile parkinsonism.

    Juvenile parkinsonism (onset age <20 yrs) is uncommon and few cases with neuropathologic confirmation have been reported. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who presented with asymmetric arm tremor and bulbar symptoms. His paternal great aunt had parkinsonism with onset at age 22 years. Examination revealed parkinsonism in the absence of additional neurologic signs except for delayed pupillary responses to light. He responded well to levodopa but developed motor fluctuations and disabling dyskinesias after 3 years of treatment. Following attempted withdrawal of levodopa at age 24 years, he developed severe aspiration pneumonia complicated by cardiorepiratory arrests and he died 6 months later. At autopsy, the dominant histologic feature was wide-spread neuronal hyaline intranuclear inclusions. Neuronal depletion was observed in the substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, and, to a lesser extent, in the frontal cortex, and inclusions were particularly prominent in these areas. Inclusions were immunoreactive for ubiquitin and were typical of those seen in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a rare, multisytem neurodegenerative disease. NIID should be considered in the differential diagnosis of juvenile parkinsonism. A link between NIID and hereditary neurodegenerative disorders characterized by expanded polyglutamine tracts is supported by the similar appearance of intranuclear inclusions in both conditions and by a family history in some cases of NIID.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cortex
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9/33. Case report of pallido-pyramidal disease with supplementary motor area involvement.

    An C-flumazenil positron emission tomography (PET) study in a patient with pallido-pyramidal disease revealed a marked decrease in benzodiazepine-receptor density in the precentral gyrus cortex and the mesial frontal cortex. We suggest that, in addition to dysfunction of basal ganglia-dependent systems, degeneration of the supplementary motor area could also be involved in the patient's bradykinesia.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cortex
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10/33. Involuntary hand levitation associated with parietal damage: another alien hand syndrome.

    The alien hand syndrome (AHS) usually consists of an autonomous motor activity perceived as an involuntary and purposeful movement, with a feeling of foreignness of the involved limb, commonly associated with a failure to recognise ownership of the limb in the absence of visual clues. It has been described in association to lesions of the frontal lobes and corpus callosum. However, parietal damage can promote an involuntary, but purposeless, hand levitation, which, sometimes, resembles AHS. In the present study, four patients (cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration - n=2; Alzheimer's disease - n=1 and parietal stroke - n=1) who developed alien hand motor behaviour and whose CT, MRI and/or SPECT have disclosed a major contralateral parietal damage or dysfunction are described. These results reinforce the idea that parietal lobe lesions may also play a role in some patients with purposeless involuntary limb levitation, which is different from the classic forms of AHS.
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ranking = 0.009379621864482
keywords = visual
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