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1/61. Intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    Two patients with primary intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumour are presented. In a 32-year-old man, the tumour evolved intradurally from a sacral nerve root. Despite repeated surgery and radiochemotherapy, the patient suffered multiple intraspinal tumour relapses and intracranial seedings, and died 29 months after the first diagnosis. In a 17-year-old male adolescent, the tumour was located in the lumbar epidural space, extending into the paraspinal muscles. Following resection and radiochemotherapy, the patient is free from disease 23 months after the initial presentation. The clinical, radiological, histopathological and cytogenetic findings of both patients are presented and the relevant literature is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the histogenetic relationship between peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour and Ewing's sarcoma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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2/61. Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ureter: a case report and review of the literature.

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a rare soft tissue tumor of childhood usually found in the extremities. The authors present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with right flank pain and hematuria and during operation was found to have a right ureteral mass. The histopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and cytogenetic characteristics of the excised mass were consistent with extraosseous ES/PNET. This is the first known reported case of extraosseous ES/ PNET of the ureter. The pathologic features and clinical management of this case, as well as a review of the literature, are presented.
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ranking = 5
keywords = sarcoma
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3/61. Subcutaneous primitive neuroectodermal tumour in the abdominal wall of a child: long-term survival after local excision.

    Tumours of the peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing's sarcoma (PNET/ES) family can rarely occur as primary lesions within the skin and subcutis. We present a case of subcutaneous PNET within the abdominal wall of a 33-month-old child. Histologically it was a small round cell tumour that marked strongly for CD99 and displayed ultrastructual evidence of neural differentiation. The tumour was completely excised, but due to an initial misdiagnosis no adjuvant therapy was given. Despite this, the patient is well without evidence of disease 10 years and 3 months after surgery. A review of similar cases reveals not all patients are as fortunate, suggesting combination therapy, including chemotherapy, is still the best treatment for these tumours, even when small and superficial. Our report therefore highlights the importance of recognising PNET/ES in the skin and subcutis so appropriate therapy can be administered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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4/61. Intracranial Ewing sarcoma/'peripheral' primitive neuroectodermal tumor of dural origin with molecular genetic confirmation.

    Ewing sarcoma/'peripheral' primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) is the designation given to a family of small cell neoplasms that typically arise in bone or soft tissue and are unified by their common expression of the MIC2 antigen and specific translocations involving a gene on chromosome 22q12 [the most common being t(11;22)(q24;q12)]. ES/pPNET of intracranial origin is extraordinary. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with a large left frontal region mass that adhered to dura and was extracerebral at surgery. Histologic study revealed a high-grade, undifferentiated-appearing neoplasm of small cell type that was negative on immunostudy for glial fibrillary acidic protein, synaptophysin, desmin, leukocyte common antigen, smooth muscle actin and epithelial membrane antigen, but positive for vimentin and neuron-specific enolase and diffusely labeled by antibody O13 (which recognizes the MIC2 gene product). rna-based polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed the diagnosis of ES/pPNET by demonstrating fusion transcripts indicative of t(11;22) translocation. Bone scan, computerized tomography of the chest and bone marrow examination revealed no systemic tumor. The limited observations published to date suggest that primary intracranial ES/pPNET is most likely to present in childhood as a circumscribed, contrast-enhancing and dural-based extracerebral mass. It must be distinguished from a variety of small cell neoplasms, particularly PNETs of central neuroepithelial origin.
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ranking = 5
keywords = sarcoma
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5/61. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET) of pelvic origin: report of a case arising from an unusual location.

    A peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising from the abdominopelvic cavity is reported in a 24-year-old young male without any previous remarkable pathology. He was admitted to our hospital with complaints of urinary symptoms (acute urinary retention) and mild intestinal occlusion that had been present for three months. physical examination and CT scan revealed a pelvic mass occupying the entire pelvic cavity. The diagnostic workup included a CT-guided biopsy which defined the tumor as a sarcomatous type. Radical surgery was performed including tumor resection, pelvic exenteration (bladder and prostate gland) and urinary and fecal diversion. Adjuvant chemotherapy (VAIA) was delivered once the histology was confirmed. We reviewed the available literature focusing on the varied nomenclature of this tumor (peripheral neuroepithelioma, Askin's tumor, Ewing's extraosseous tumor, peripheral adult neuroblastoma, peripheral primitive extracranial neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET), the clinical features, the role of diagnostic imaging techniques, pathologic assessment and controversial therapeutic management. In addition, the prognosis and survival of this rare condition were analyzed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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6/61. Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) arising in the omentum as a multilocular cyst with intracystic hemorrhage.

    A rare case of Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the greater omentum in a 41-year-old man is reported. The patient presented with a hemorrhagic mesenteric cyst that was disclosed by the results of an abdominal echogram, a computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging. A laparotomy showed a multilocular cyst with intra-cystic hemorrhage. Histologically, the tumor wall consisted of sheets of small round cells separated by thick desmoplastic stroma. Rosette formations or ribbon-like cell arrangements were absent. Further pathological examination revealed that the membrane of the tumor cells was positive for MIC-2, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, and desmin, which are usually positive in intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round-cell tumors. An EWS/FLI1 fused transcript was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The patient died of tumor recurrence 4 months after his first admission. The autopsied tumor tissue exhibited neural differentiation in certain regions. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported of Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the omentum with unique pathological features and the occurrence of partial neural differentiation during the clinical course. This case pointed out to us, as gastroenterologists, that only thorough examination confirms a definitive diagnosis of small round-cell tumor of the abdomen, it also shows that Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in the omentum.
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ranking = 8
keywords = sarcoma
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7/61. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) of the uterus are very rare. Even preoperative curettage specimen morphology does not permit establishing a proper histogenetic diagnosis. CASE: A 16-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of metrorrhagia of three months' duration. The curettage specimen was interpreted as poorly differentiated sarcoma. The patient was operated on, and a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy was performed. Histologically the tumor was composed of uniform, rounded, oval and sometimes spindle shaped cells with a narrow rim of eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells were positive for neurogenic marker protein gene product, neuron-specific enolase and Ewing's sarcoma-related HBA-71. All cells were uniformly negative for Ber EP4 monoclonal antibody recognizing an epithelium-specific surface antigen. A diagnosis of PNET was rendered. The patient received combined therapy, external radiation to the pelvis and chemotherapy. Four years later she was alive, without signs of recurrent tumor. CONCLUSION: In spite of the generally recognized aggressive behavior of PNET, it can have a long disease-free survival rate when appropriately treated.
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ranking = 2
keywords = sarcoma
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8/61. Cervical primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    BACKGROUND: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies. CASE: A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition and periaortic lymphadenectomy was performed with postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient remains disease free 2 years from therapy. CONCLUSION: This is a rare case of cervical PNET occurring in a pregnant patient. A review of the literature indicates that cervical PNET is distinguishable from uterine PNET. This tumor affects younger women and may have a different histogenesis. pregnancy should not delay diagnosis of this potentially aggressive tumor.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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9/61. Visceral primitive peripheral neuroectodermal tumors: a clinicopathologic and molecular study.

    Ewing sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (EWS/PNET) belongs to the group of pediatric small round blue cell tumors; although EWS/PNET is classically a tumor of the soft tissue or bone in children and young adults, individual cases have been described in patients of all ages. A group of chromosomal translocations involving the EWS gene and a member of the Ets transcription factor family of genes has been detected in EWS/PNET, and heterogeneity in the precise breakpoint of the translocation has been shown to generate a group of related fusion transcripts that may have prognostic significance. Within the last decade, the clinicopathologic spectrum of EWS/PNET has been markedly expanded by recognition that the tumor may also have a visceral origin. To determine whether visceral EWS/PNET has the same pattern of genetic alterations and range of fusion transcripts as EWS/PNET of bone and soft tissue, we performed reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-based testing of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from a series of visceral tumors for which the diagnosis of EWS/PNET was well established. Together with additional cases compiled from the literature, EWS-Fli1 (or a related fusion transcript) was present in 18 of 19 visceral EWS/PNET, with a distribution of transcript types not statistically different from EWS/PNET of soft tissue and bone (P >.05, chi(2) test). These results firmly establish the genetic relationship between EWS/PNET of visceral sites, soft tissue, and bone.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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10/61. exercise-induced spontaneous hemothorax insinuates trauma; yet unmasks a lament disorder.

    The investigation for a plausible explanation of the development of massive spontaneous hemothorax during exercise in two patients led to the disclosure of two different malignancies. The first patient (pleural fibrosarcoma) passed away shortly after diagnosis. The second patient is alive without signs of disease (peripheral neuro-ectodermal tumor, PNET) since the diagnosis was made 3 years before.Spontaneous hemothorax (SH) arising during exercise does not exclusively designate trauma and full search for anatomical abnormality is warranted.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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