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11/30. Primary intracranial atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in a child: a case report.

    Rhabdoid tumors of the central nervous system are rare malignancies. Primary central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATT/RhTs) mostly occur during early childhood and are almost invariably fatal. These tumors show similar histological and radiological features to primitive neuroectodermal tumormedulloblastoma (PNET-MB) but have different biological behaviors. We report a case of primary intracranial ATT/RhT in the posterior cranial fossa of a child. Preoperative radiological diagnosis was PNET-MB, but pathological diagnosis is ATT/ RhT. The case involved a 16-month-old baby boy who presented with severe headache, vomiting, and gait disturbance. He was treated by surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Despite aggressive therapy, he died 19 months after diagnosis. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological features of primary intracranial ATT/RhT are discussed with a special emphasis on the differential diagnosis from PNET-MB.
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12/30. A unique occurrence of a cerebral atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in an infant and a spinal canal primitive neuroectodermal tumor in her father.

    This report describes the clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical and genetic data of two rare malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS)--a cerebral atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) in a 5-month-old girl and a spinal canal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) in her father. Despite aggressive treatment, both tumors were fatal, displaying extensive local recurrence and diffuse neoplastic dissemination. The paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples were analyzed using a dual-color FISH with a locus specific LSI22q (BCR) probe. In the AT/RT tissue, a loss of BCR locus was observed in a significant proportion of the cells in contrast to the PNET specimen where the majority of nuclei did not reveal any loss of the BCR region. No mutations in exon 5 and no changes in SNP of intron 5 of hSNF/INI1 gene were found. In addition, analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was performed using a panel of 15 microsatellite markers of chromosome 22. No LOH were found in both tumor tissues. In both cases no constitutional mutations of gene TP53 were found. Analysis of the TP53 mutations in the tumor tissues revealed that the PNET, not the AT/RT tumor, was homozygous for a missense mutation at codon 175 (CGC ==> CAC). Thus, our findings emphasize the genetic differences between the two specimens and suggest that the occurrence of these two aggressive tumors of CNS in one family could be coincidental.
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13/30. A novel case of a CAT to AAT transversion in codon 179 of the p53 gene in a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor harbored by a young girl. Case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: The most common cytogenetic abnormality encountered in primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET)/medulloblastoma is loss of heterozygosity in the region of the short arm of chromosome 17. There is some evidence that supratentorial PNET has different cytogenetic markers than infratentorial PNET/medulloblastoma. Particularly, loss of 17p is more frequent in the latter than in the former. We describe a young girl diagnosed with supratentorial PNET (SPNET). Analysis of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in the tumorous tissue revealed a rare transversion mutational event of CAT to AAT in position 179 of exon 5. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of such a transversion at codon 179 in the p53 gene in SPNET. CASE REPORT: A 12-year-old girl was admitted with nausea, headache and vision disturbances. MRI of the brain showed a large space- occupying lesion in the right frontal lobe. Histological examination of the macroscopic resection of the tumor revealed PNET of the brain. polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism analysis of all p53 exons was performed, and a unique variant of a transversion at codon 179 of exon 5 was revealed. Therapy was started according to the Children's Cancer group protocol (CCG-99702) designated for treatment of high-risk central nervous system embryonal tumors. She received an initial course of chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide and vincristine for mobilizing and harvesting peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs). Then she was given craniospinal irradiation (3,600 cGy) with a boost to the tumor bed (1,980 cGy) and three consecutive courses of high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin, vincristine and thiotepa/cyclophosphamide, with PBSCs support after each course. RESULTS: The patient is in complete remission 17 months after diagnosis, based on the results of physical examination and imaging studies. DISCUSSION: The mutation results in an alteration of the amino acid HIS to ASN. The amino acids surrounding position 175 play an important role in stabilizing the p53/dna complex. There are only 12 known mutations of the reported type, and the finding of such a rare mutational event in a low-incidence p53 mutation tumor, such as SPNET, might add additional insight into the p53-SPNET relationship in tumorigenesis. Although not widely accepted, it is possible that different mutations of the p53 gene in patients with brain tumors may imply a different ultimate prognosis. In our case, we cannot exclude the fact that transversion of CAT to AAT in position 179 of exon 5 may explain prolonged survival of a patient with good response to therapy.
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14/30. Mediastinal T-cell lymphoma in a boy 7 years after treatment of supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    medulloblastoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is one of the most common central nervous system tumors in children and requires aggressive multimodality therapy. The authors describe a patient who developed mediastinal T-cell lymphoma 7 years after treatment of supratentorial PNET. Despite a good tumor response, the patient died during induction therapy because of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The authors conclude from this case that patients treated for medulloblastoma/PNET should be followed carefully for years. In addition, patients with second malignancies should be considered as a high-risk population for opportunistic infections.
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15/30. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the ovary: a case report.

    Ovarian germ cell tumours having neuroectodermal cells, growing in patterns reminiscent of tumours of the central nervous system are rare. We report a case of primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) of the ovary detected soon after pregnancy.
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16/30. microdissection genotyping of mixed glial and primitive neuroectodermal central nervous system neoplasm.

    A 22-year-old man with previous radiation treatment for childhood astrocytoma underwent resection of a right parietooccipital lesion. Histopathology revealed a malignant neoplasm with areas of astrocytic and primitive neuroectodermal components. To resolve the relationship and cellular origin, representative tissue was microdissected from several targets, obtaining a balanced mixture of each element. Nonneoplastic brain parenchyma was separately microdissected to determine polymorphic marker informativeness and to serve as an internal negative control. Despite the relatively small quantity of tissue removed for each microdissection target, sufficient material was available for reliable, balanced, polymerase chain reaction-format genotyping encompassing a panel of tumor suppressor genes and genetic loci associated with these forms of neoplasia. The findings revealed distinct discordant genotypic profiles for each of the neoplastic components. The efficacy of the approach used for molecular analysis of this complex neoplasm and the implication of the genotypic findings are discussed.
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17/30. Cytokeratin-positive meningeal peripheral PNET/Ewing's sarcoma of the cervical spinal cord: diagnostic value of genetic analysis.

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing's sarcoma (ES) of the central nervous system is extremely rare and should be differentiated from central PNET and other small blue round cell tumors. We describe a case of a meningeal peripheral PNET/ES of the spinal cord in an 11-year-old boy. Immunohistochemically, the small blue round cell tumor showed expression of epithelial markers and of CD99, thus posing an important differential diagnostic problem with a poorly differentiated synovial sarcoma. fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed rearrangement of the EWS gene, as seen in peripheral PNET/ES. Peripheral PNET/ES does occur in the central nervous system, but its diagnosis can be extremely difficult on morphologic and immunohistochemical grounds alone. Genetic analysis plays a key role in its distinction from other small blue round cell tumors.
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18/30. Intracranial Ewing sarcoma.

    The occurrence of primary extraosseous Ewing sarcoma (EES) of the central nervous system (CNS) has only rarely been reported in the literature. It is important to distinguish this entity from the more common central primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of brain, since the management of these tumors is different from that of EES. We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of two cases of EES occurring in the brain. The diagnosis was further confirmed by detection of a rearrangement of the FLI1 and/or EWS gene loci in tumors from both patients using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Although rare, the possibility of EES should be considered particularly when tumors that arise near the meningeal surface of the brain and have the pathologic appearance of a PNET. Demonstration of t(11;22)(q24;q12) by molecular analysis essentially confirms the diagnosis and enables the oncologist to choose appropriate therapy.
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19/30. Primary intramedullary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)--case report and review of the literature.

    Spinal primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are very rare tumors, and intramedullary localization is even less common. Indeed, amongst the 23 cases of the spinal PNET described in the literature, only eight cases had an intramedullary localization. Following the WHO 2000 classification, PNETs have been considered embryonal tumors composed of undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells with a capacity of differentiation into different cellular lines, such as astrocytic, ependymal, melanotic and muscular. They have been considered to arise from a neoplastic transformation of primitive neuroepithelial cells, thereby making their presence possible in any part of the central nervous system. The optimal treatment for these malignant tumors is not yet clear, although, over the years, radiotherapy has been considered the best treatment for spinal PNETs. The described case is that of a 38-year-old man with a primary intra-extramedullary PNET, treated by laminectomy, open biopsy and chemotherapy. The patient, 18 months after the onset of his symptomatology, died without cerebral tumor involvement.
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20/30. Transverse myelitis after therapy for primitive neuroectodermal tumors.

    Traditional therapy for malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumors in children includes surgery, multi-agent chemotherapy, and radiation. Given the poor prognosis with conventional therapy alone, newer treatment approaches have incorporated high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell rescue. Treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is not without unanticipated and unwanted side effects. Specifically, radiation-induced damage to the central nervous system can occur, though the frequency is thought to be acceptably low. This report describes two cases of treatment-related transverse myelitis in patients who received induction chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation followed by high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue. Other patients treated with a similar strategy but different sequence and timing of treatment did not experience symptoms of myelitis, suggesting that the specific timing of radiation in relationship to the chemotherapy may be of critical importance.
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