Cases reported "Neuroectodermal Tumors"

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1/12. Synovial sarcoma, histologically mimicking primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing's sarcoma at distant sites.

    We report a case of synovial sarcoma (SS) showing unusual histology at distant sites. A 47-year-old man was aware of a tumor on the sole of his left foot. After preoperative chemotherapy with a diagnosis of SS, wide excision was performed. During postoperative chemotherapy, multiple tumorous lesions developed in the bone (including the whole spine) and both lungs. The patient died 1 year later. Histologically, the excised tumor of the foot showed a biphasic cellular pattern typical of SS, whereas at autopsy the bone and lung lesions were composed only of undifferentiated small round cells with cytoplasmic fibrillar processes. Homer-Wright rosettes were also observed. Immunohistochemically, 80% of the bone and lung tumor cells expressed MIC2 protein homogeneously. To clarify whether the bone and lung round cell tumors were metastatic lesions or second malignancies, especially primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET)/Ewing's sarcoma (ES), we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of tumor type-specific fusion gene transcripts. The SYT/SSX fusion transcript was identified in both the foot and lung lesions, whereas the EWS/FLI1 transcript was not detected in either lesion. Therefore, we concluded that the multiple bone and lung tumors were poorly differentiated metastatic tumors, which arose from the SS of the foot. We also conclude that the identification of chimeric fusion transcripts can be successfully applied to poorly differentiated sarcomas and will help in the differential diagnosis of tumors that cannot be distinguished by conventional morphological examinations. Also, it should be remembered that cytoplasmic staining for MIC2 protein may occur in sarcomas other than PNET/ES.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rosette
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2/12. Primary vulvar and vaginal extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor: diagnostic confirmation with CD99 immunostaining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.

    Two cases of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor arising in unusual, superficial sites are reported. One tumor involved the vaginal wall of a 35-year-old woman, and the other neoplasm arose in the dermis of the vulva in a 28-year-old woman. The tumors showed characteristic microscopic features of Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor with nodular monotonous proliferations of undifferentiated, small, round, hyperchromatic cells with a low mitotic index. Rare rosette-like formations were apparent only in the vulvar neoplasm. The tumors displayed intense immunoreactivity in a membranous pattern for CD99, the cell surface glycoprotein encoded by the MIC2 gene. Genetically, the tumors expressed the EWS/FLI-1 chimeric transcript, derived from the t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation. Both patients had localized disease treated with wide local excision; one received postoperative chemotherapy, and the other received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To date, 18 and 19 months after diagnosis, neither patient has had clinical evidence of local recurrence or metastasis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of vaginal and vulvar Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, confirmed with molecular genetic analysis, in the English literature.
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ranking = 1.0004687136031
keywords = rosette, formation
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3/12. Endometrial endometrioid carcinomas associated with Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    Three uterine tumors, each consisting of endometrioid carcinoma and Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) are described. The diagnosis of ES/pPNET in each case was first established in the hysterectomy specimen because each ES/pPNET was misinterpreted on the endometrial biopsy specimens as a high-grade homologous sarcoma. The ES/pPNET element in each case consisted of solid masses of small- to medium-sized round cells without Homer-Wright pseudorosettes, glial or ganglion cells, true rosettes with central lumens, or medulloepithelial tubules. Each ES/pPNET exhibited focal positive immunostaining for neuron-specific enolase, diffuse staining for vimentin, and strong cell membrane immunoreactivity for O13 (CD99), the last finding providing the first clue to the diagnosis of ES/pPNET in each case. The diagnosis in each case was confirmed by detection of EWS/FLI-1 fusion transcript through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also examined O13 immunoreactivity retrospectively in 40 cases of malignant mixed mullerian tumors (MMMT) with homologous or heterologous elements. O13 immunoreactivity was not observed in the malignant epithelium or in the homologous or heterologous sarcomas. The immunoreactivity of O13 in round cell endometrial sarcomas provides a clue to the diagnosis of ES/pPNET.
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keywords = rosette
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4/12. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cauda equina.

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive neoplasms composed predominantly of undifferentiated cells that show evidence of neural differentiation. Although their classification has been controversial, PNETs are well recognized primary tumors of both central and peripheral nervous systems. PNETs must be distinguished from other round-cell tumors, including Ewing's sarcoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and small cell carcinoma. Intraspinal PNETs are rare neoplasms that are usually metastatic in origin. We describe the eighth reported primary PNET of the cauda equina that developed in a 52-year-old man with no significant medical history. The tumor was characterized by Homer-Wright rosettes and immunoreactivity for CD99, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase S100, and synaptophysin. The anatomic location of primary intrathecal PNETs is important as those arising in the spinal cord develop in the central nervous system, whereas those arising in the cauda equina develop in the peripheral nervous system. The histogenesis of intrathecal PNETs may be multifactorial.
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keywords = rosette
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5/12. Insulin production in a neuroectodermal tumor that expresses islet factor-1, but not pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1.

    We studied a 60-yr-old female with a brain tumor who showed severe symptoms of hypoglycemia (plasma glucose, 2.2 mmol/L) and hyperinsulinemia (1.28 nmol/L) after radiotherapy. The cystic brain tumor contained proinsulin and insulin at concentrations of 13.6 and 1.22 nmol/L, respectively. Immunohistochemical studies showed the tumor cells were ectodermal in origin but not endodermal, based on three diagnostic features of neuroectodermal tumors 1) pseudorosette formation noted under light microscopy, 2) finding of a small number of dense core neurosecretory granules on electron microscopy, and 3) positive immunostaining for both neuronal specific enolase and protein gene product 9.5. These cells also expressed the transcription factor, neurogenin-3, NeuroD/beta 2, and islet factor I, which are believed to be transcription factors in neuroectoderm as well as in pancreatic islet cells, but not pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1, Pax4, or Nkx2.2. In addition, they did not express glucagon, somatostatin, or glucagon-like peptide-1. Our results show the presence of proinsulin in an ectoderm cell brain tumor that does not express the homeobox gene, pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1, but expresses other transcription factors, i.e. neurogenin3, NeuroD/beta 2, and islet factor-1, which are related to insulin gene expression in the brain tumor.
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ranking = 1.0004687136031
keywords = rosette, formation
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6/12. Histopathological and immuno-histochemical characteristics of primary renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    We report a 32-year-old male who presented with huge (17 x 10.5 x 5 cm) right kidney with metastasis in the liver and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Histological, detailed immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopic examinations were performed. microscopy revealed small to intermediate sized cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, scanty cytoplasm, abundant mitosis with no pseudorossete formation. Immunohistochemical study revealed positive staining of the tumor cells for S100, neurofilaments, neuron specific enolase, vimentin and myoglobin. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare malignant round cell tumors of the kidney. A correct diagnosis can be made on light microscopic features, and by immunohistochemically positive staining for more than one neural marker. This neoplasm should be differentiated from other renal neoplasms composed of small round cells.
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ranking = 0.0004687136030792
keywords = formation
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7/12. Novel PMS2 pseudogenes can conceal recessive mutations causing a distinctive childhood cancer syndrome.

    We investigated a family with an autosomal recessive syndrome of cafe-au-lait patches and childhood malignancy, notably supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. There was no cancer predisposition in heterozygotes; nor was there bowel cancer in any individual. However, autozygosity mapping indicated linkage to a region of 7p22 surrounding the PMS2 mismatch-repair gene. Sequencing of genomic PCR products initially failed to identify a PMS2 mutation. genome searches then revealed a previously unrecognized PMS2 pseudogene, corresponding to exons 9-15, within a 100-kb inverted duplication situated 600 kb centromeric from PMS2 itself. This information allowed a redesigned sequence analysis, identifying a homozygous mutation (R802X) in PMS2 exon 14. Furthermore, in the family with Turcot syndrome, in which the first inherited PMS2 mutation (R134X) was described, a further truncating mutation was identified on the other allele, in exon 13. Further whole-genome analysis shows that the complexity of PMS2 pseudogenes is greater than appreciated and may have hindered previous mutation studies. Several previously reported PMS2 polymorphisms are, in fact, pseudogene sequence variants. Although PMS2 mutations may be rare in colorectal cancer, they appear, for the most part, to behave as recessive traits. For technical reasons, their involvement in childhood cancer, particularly in primitive neuroectodermal tumor, may have been underestimated.
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ranking = 0.0004687136030792
keywords = formation
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8/12. Molecular analysis of an immature ovarian teratoma with gliomatosis peritonei and recurrence suggests genetic independence of multiple tumors.

    Immature ovarian teratoma is a common germ cell tumor of young women. patients with immature teratoma often exhibit multiple neoplasms, including tumors outside the ovaries, and occasionally a rare benign condition termed gliomatosis peritonei (GP). These multiple neoplasms are generally believed genetically-linked progeny of the ovarian tumor resulting from local recurrence/spread. In this study, we performed a molecular analysis of a single patient clinically diagnosed with immature ovarian teratoma, GP, and recurrent pelvic mucinous teratoma. Microsatellite PCR and amplicon analysis was performed to genetically characterize tissue samples from omental glial implants and multiple peritoneal tumors. PCR-based amplification of microsatellite markers identifies unique genetic differences (allelic variation) between tumors resulting from divergent natural histories among multiple tumor nodules in a single patient. A total of 21 different microsatellite markers were employed, and seven provided informative results (D3S1744, D6S1056, D7S2846, D14S306, D16S764, D18S858, D22S420). These markers demonstrated mutually exclusive genetic differences among the tumors from this patient, establishing the neoplasms as genetically distinct from each other (non-identical), and that no lineage relationship exists among them. This observation suggests that the multiple tumors arising in this patient with immature ovarian teratoma, GP, and recurrent pelvic mucinous neoplasm represent multiple independent tumors rather than true tumor recurrence/spread. The results of this study suggest strongly that patients with recurrent teratoma may be afflicted with a tumor-prone syndrome where one or more peritoneal cell types or populations are predisposed to neoplastic conversion and formation of tumors as a result of an endogenous or exogenous neoplastic stimuli.
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ranking = 0.0004687136030792
keywords = formation
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9/12. A primitive neuroectodermal tumor on the face: case report.

    In 1918, Stout defined the lesion in which small round cells originating from the ulnar nerve formed a rosette as neuroepithelioma. It was claimed that this tumor originated from neuroectodermis and was different from the classical neuroblastoma. The term primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) involves a group of tumors of the soft tissue originating from neural crest and resulting from the brain, spinal cord and branches of the sympathetic nervous system. Extracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumors originate from neural crest cells outside the sympathetic and central nervous system. PNET also has some distinctive histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features. It is usually encountered in children and young adults; most frequently located in thoracopulmonary region (Askin's tumor). The second most commonly involved body part is the extremities. It is very rarely located on the face. PNET is an aggressive tumor. In fact, the disease has a rapid progression, causes local or distant metastases and 50% of the patients die within two years of the presentation. It is treated with aggressive surgery as well as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this report, we presented a case of PNET located on the right cheek with multiple distant metastases. Clinicians should be on alert when treating facial tumors, not to skip PNET, which is a very aggressive one.
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keywords = rosette
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10/12. Cytogenetic and dna analysis of two neuroectodermal tumors without a simple t(11;22).

    cytogenetic analysis was conducted on tumor biopsy material from two pediatric, small, round, blue-cell tumors whose histology failed to give a clearcut diagnosis. The first case showed a complex composite karyotype within which there were two normal chromosomes 11 and one abnormal chromosome 22 present. The composite karyotype in the second case was similarly complex but this time included an abnormal chromosome 11 but no corresponding abnormal chromosome 22. Analysis of tumor mRNA from both cases using a Reverse Transcriptase PCR test with primers derived from a Ewing's sarcoma t(11;22)(q24;q12) breakpoint sequence showed both to have abnormal, chimeric transcribed messengers, each of different lengths. Further analysis of case 2 using chromosome painting and centromeric probing confirmed the abnormal chromosome 11 to be a der(11)t(11;22)(q24;q12) and also revealed two additional minor clones containing a der(22), which may be the karyotypic locations of the t(11;22) fusion sequences. Taken into consideration with clinical and histologic information, the results of these investigations indicated that both were neuroectodermal tumors (Ewing sarcomas of the chest wall/Askin tumors). The comparative values of both cytogenetic and molecular analysis in the diagnosis of neuroectodermal tumors and the detection of covert chromosome rearrangements are discussed.
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keywords = formation
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