Cases reported "Neuroma, Acoustic"

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1/146. An uncommon mechanism of brachial plexus injury. A case report.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of brachial plexus injury occurring on the contralateral side in a patient undergoing surgery for acoustic neuroma through translabrynthine approach. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 51-yr-old woman underwent surgery for acoustic neuroma through translabrynthine approach in the left retroauricular area. She had a short neck with a BMI of 32. Under anesthesia, she was placed in supine position with Sugita pins for head fixation. The head was turned 45 degrees to the right side and the neck was slightly flexed for access to the left retroauricular area, with both arms tucked by the side of the body. Postoperatively, she developed weakness in the right upper extremity comparable with palsy of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. hematoma at the right internal jugular vein cannulation site was ruled out by CAT scan and MRI. The only remarkable finding was considerable swelling of the right sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscle group, with some retropharyngeal edema. An EMG confirmed neuropraxia of the upper trunk of brachial plexus. She made a complete recovery of sensory and motor power in the affected limb over the next three months with conservative treatment and physiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: brachial plexus injury is still seen during anesthesia despite the awareness about its etiology. Malpositioning of the neck during prolonged surgery could lead to compression of scalene muscles and venous drainage impedance. The resultant swelling in the structures surrounding the brachial plexus may result in a severe compression.
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2/146. Suboccipital resection of a medial acoustic neuroma with hearing preservation.

    BACKGROUND: Many reports indicate that acoustic neuromas greater than 2.0 cm should be removed without hearing preservation attempted, even if hearing is present preoperatively. These studies advocate a translabyrinthine approach because the likelihood of hearing preservation is low. Medial acoustic neuromas, unlike the more common lateral tumors that involve the internal auditory canal, originate medial to that portion of the eighth nerve complex where the cochlear and vestibular nerves are fused. This anatomical feature suggests that these tumors may be amenable to resection with hearing preservation. methods: A patient with a 3.5 cm medial acoustic neuroma and useful preoperative hearing is presented. RESULTS: Gross total tumor removal with functional hearing was achieved after a two-stage procedure using a suboccipital approach. CONCLUSION: Based on the anatomico-pathologic features in this case, we believe that, if a patient has reasonable preoperative hearing (speech discrimination score > 70%) and a medial acoustic neuroma, an approach to preserve hearing should be considered regardless of tumor size.
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3/146. Delayed intracranial abscess after acoustic neuroma surgery: a report of two cases.

    OBJECTIVE: The use of antibiotics before and after surgery has made infectious complications of neurotologic surgery rare. The neurosurgical literature cites a rate of postoperative meningitis between 1% and 2% for "clean" cases and 1.5% to 2.5% for "clean contaminated" cases, such as cerebrospinal fluid contact with the middle ear or mastoid. Reports of infections after neurotologic procedures are rare in the otologic literature. In this report, two patients with brain abscess occurring in a delayed fashion after surgery are described. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was a retrospective chart review and case report. SETTING: The study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. RESULTS: Patient 1 underwent a suboccipital craniotomy for removal of an acoustic neuroma and had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Three months after surgery, he reported mild unsteadiness. Examination revealed mild ataxia, which led to repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a diagnosis of cerebellar abscess. Patient 2 underwent translabyrinthine removal of an acoustic neuroma complicated by postoperative pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis, which responded promptly to intravenous antibiotics. Fifteen months after surgery, he visited a neurologist after having a seizure and was treated with anticonvulsants. After a second episode of seizure, imaging studies showed a temporal lobe abscess. CONCLUSIONS: The signs of intracranial abscess may be subtle and can occur weeks or months after surgery, requiring vigilance and a high index of suspicion for diagnosis. A change in postoperative symptoms after acoustic neuroma surgery should signal further investigation using MRI with gadolinium.
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4/146. Magnetic resonance cisternography using the fast spin echo method for the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.

    neuroimaging of vestibular schwannoma was performed with the fat-suppression spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) method and magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography, which is a fast spin echo method using a long echo train length, for the preoperative evaluation of the lateral extension of the tumor in the internal auditory canal, and the anatomical identification of the posterior semicircular canal and the nerves in the canal distal to the tumor. The SPGR method overestimated the lateral extension in eight cases, probably because of enhancement of the nerves adjacent to the tumor in the canal. The posterior semicircular canal could not be clearly identified, and the cranial nerves in the canal were shown only as a nerve bundle. In contrast, MR cisternography showed clear images of the lateral extension of the tumor and the facial and cochlear nerves adjacent to the tumor in the internal auditory canal. The anatomical location of the posterior semicircular canal was also clearly shown. These preoperative findings are very useful to plan the extent to which the internal auditory canal can be opened, and for intraoperative identification of the nerves in the canal. MR cisternography is less invasive since no contrast material or radiation is required, as with thin-slice high-resolution computed tomography (CT). MR cisternography should replace high-resolution CT for the preoperative neuroradiological evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.
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5/146. Persistent trigeminal neuralgia after removal of contralateral posterior cranial fossa tumor. Report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia as a false localizing sign in patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors is rare. Persistent contralateral trigeminal neuralgia after removal of the posterior fossa expanding lesion with microsurgical exploration of the affected trigeminal nerve root has been described in only a few reports. Displacement of the brainstem and the trigeminal nerve root, arachnoid adhesions, and vascular compression of the nerve root entry zone have been reported as causes of persistent contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. methods: One patient developed transformation of the contralateral constant burning facial pain into trigeminal neuralgia after removal of a posterior fossa meningioma. A typical right-sided tic douloureux in our second patient did not disappear after removal of a left acoustic neurinoma. CT scan revealed brainstem displacement to the side of trigeminal neuralgia. Microsurgical exploration in both cases demonstrated the squeezed and distorted trigeminal nerve root and displaced brain stem with no vascular involvement. Both patients underwent partial trigeminal rhizotomy for pain control. RESULTS: Complete disappearance of the trigeminal neuralgia was evident in both cases with postoperative facial sensory loss. The postoperative course in the first case was uneventful; the second patient died from purulent meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: Persistent contralateral trigeminal neuralgia after removal of a posterior fossa tumor is caused by distortion of the fifth nerve root by the displaced brainstem. Partial trigeminal rhizotomy can be performed for alleviation of facial neuralgic pain in cases without neurovascular compression.
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6/146. Dural sinus thrombosis and pseudotumor cerebri: unexpected complications of suboccipital craniotomy and translabyrinthine craniectomy.

    OBJECT: The goal of this study was to document the hazards associated with pseudotumor cerebri resulting from transverse sinus thrombosis after tumor resection. Dural sinus thrombosis is a rare and potentially serious complication of suboccipital craniotomy and translabyrinthine craniectomy. pseudotumor cerebri may occur when venous hypertension develops secondary to outflow obstruction. Previous research indicates that occlusion of a single transverse sinus is well tolerated when the contralateral sinus remains patent. methods: The authors report the results in five of a total of 107 patients who underwent suboccipital craniotomy or translabyrinthine craniectomy for resection of a tumor. Postoperatively, these patients developed headache, visual obscuration, and florid papilledema as a result of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). In each patient, the transverse sinus on the treated side was thrombosed; patency of the contralateral sinus was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Four patients required lumboperitoneal or ventriculoperitoneal shunts and one required medical treatment for increased ICP. All five patients regained their baseline neurological function after treatment. Techniques used to avoid thrombosis during surgery are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: First, the status of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses should be documented using MR venography before patients undergo posterior fossa surgery. Second, thrombosis of a transverse or sigmoid sinus may not be tolerated even if the sinus is nondominant; vision-threatening pseudotumor cerebri may result. Third, MR venography is a reliable, noninvasive means of evaluating the venous sinuses. Fourth, if the diagnosis is made shortly after thrombosis, then direct endovascular thrombolysis with urokinase may be a therapeutic option. If the presentation is delayed, then ophthalmological complications of pseudotumor cerebri can be avoided by administration of a combination of acetazolamide, dexamethasone, lumbar puncture, and possibly lumboperitoneal shunt placement.
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7/146. Isolated metastases of adenocarcinoma in the bilateral internal auditory meatuses mimicking neurofibromatosis type 2--case report.

    A 56-year-old male with a history of lung cancer presented with isolated metastases of adenocarcinoma in the bilateral internal auditory meatuses (IAMs), mimicking the bilateral acoustic schwannomas of neurofibromatosis type 2, and manifesting as rapidly worsening tinnitus and bilateral hearing loss. magnetic resonance imaging showed small tumors in both IAMs with no sign of leptomeningeal metastasis. The preoperative diagnosis was neurofibromatosis type 2. Both tumors were removed and the histological diagnoses were adenocarcinoma. neuroimaging differentiation of a solitary metastatic IAM tumor from a benign tumor is difficult, although rapidly progressive eighth cranial nerve dysfunction suggests a malignant process. Metastases should be considered as a rare diagnostic possibility in a patient with small tumors in both IAMs.
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8/146. magnetic resonance imaging artifact following acoustic neurofibroma surgery--case report.

    Metallic artifacts in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging occur mostly in patients who have received an implant at surgery. Similar artifacts are now increasingly recognized in patients in whom high-speed drills have been used. A 15-year-old male with neurofibromatosis 2 had undergone excision of acoustic neurofibroma on the left 1.5 years prior to the present admission. MR imaging to evaluate the acoustic neurofibroma on the right showed a metallic artifact at the site of the previous surgery. Computed tomography did not show any evidence of metal debris. The artifact was probably caused by metallic dust or debris from a high-speed drill during the first surgery. We suggest that care should be taken to prevent deposition of such debris in the operative field to prevent this complication.
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9/146. meningioma of the internal auditory canal with extension into the vestibule.

    Meningiomas account for approximately 18 to 19 per cent of all brain tumours. Although they can arise in numerous locations, meningiomas of the internal auditory canal (IAC) are rare. Most tumours that originate in the IAC are schwannomas of the VIIIth cranial nerve (acoustic neuromas). We report a case of a meningioma which appears to originate from the IAC and extends into the vestibule. The clinical findings and the radiographical features of meningiomas of the IAC are similar to those of acoustic neuromas. Pre-operative differentiation between acoustic neuromas and meningiomas of the IAC may be difficult.
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10/146. Relationship between cystic change and rotatory vertigo in patients with acoustic neuroma.

    Acoustic neuromas are benign neoplasms that most often arise from the vestibular nerve. Many patients with this tumor experience some degree of vestibular symptoms. However, patients rarely complain of rotatory vertigo. Acoustic neuromas are known to exhibit a cystic appearance in some patients. It was hypothesized that cystic change might be a causative factor for rotatory vertigo. A retrospective study of 178 patients with unilateral acoustic neuroma who underwent surgery in the Department of otolaryngology at tokyo Medical and Dental University was carried out. The cystic appearance of the tumors was detected preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed at surgery. The relationship between cystic change of the tumor and presentation with rotatory vertigo was examined. Of the 178 patients studied, only 10 had both cystic change of the tumor and rotatory vertigo, and 120 had neither cystic tumor nor rotatory vertigo. Of the remaining 48 patients, 24 experienced rotatory vertigo with negative findings for cystic tumor and the other 24 had evidence of cystic tumor but no rotatory vertigo. Tumor with cystic change was observed in 34 patients, accounting for 19.1% of all patients studied. Rotatory vertigo was also experienced in 34 patients (19.1%). Of the 34 patients with cystic lesions, 29.4% (10) had rotatory vertigo. The difference in percentage of the two groups did not reach statistical significance. It is suggested that there may be other factors causing rotatory vertigo in patients with acoustic neuromas than cystic change of the tumor.
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