Cases reported "Neuromyelitis Optica"

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1/21. Progressive necrotic myelopathy: clinical course in 9 patients.

    OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of 9 patients who had progressive idiopathic myelopathy with evidence of spinal cord necrosis. DESIGN AND methods: We reviewed personally examined cases of myelopathy that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) regional loss of reflexes, flaccidity, and muscle atrophy; (2) magnetic resonance imaging showing a shrunken or cavitated cord without evidence of arteriovenous malformation; (3) electromyogram showing denervation over several contiguous spinal cord sgements with preservation of sensory potentials in some cases; and (4) the absence of evidence of systemic disease or neoplasm. RESULTS: The illness began in these patients after the age of 40 years, with prominent burning or tingling limb pain, occasionally with radicular features or with less well-defined back, neck, or abdominal pain. Leg or infrequently arm weakness appeared concurrently or soon after the onset of pain. The most distinctive feature was a saltatory progression of symptoms, punctuated by both acute and subacute worsenings approximately every 3 to 9 months, culminating in paraplegia or tetraplegia. The distinguishing clinical findings, together indicative of destruction of gray matter elements of the cord, were limb atrophy, persistent areflexia, and flaccidity. The concentration of cerebrospinal fluid protein was typically elevated between 500 g/L and 1000 g/L, without oligoclonal bands, accompanied infrequently by pleocytosis. magnetic resonance imaging showed features suggesting cord necrosis, specifically swelling, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and gadolinium enhancement over several spinal cord segments, succeeded months later by atrophy in the same regions. necrosis of the cord was found in biopsy material from one patient and postmortem pathology in another case, but inflammation and blood vessel abnormalities were absent. Only 2 patients had prolonged visual evoked responses. The disease progressed despite immune-modulating treatments although several patients had brief epochs of limited improvement. CONCLUSIONS: The saltatory course, prolonged visual evoked responses in 2 patients, and a cranial abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging in another, raised the possibility of a link to multiple sclerosis. However, the normal cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans in 6 other patients, uniformly absent oligoclonal bands, and poor response to treatment were atypical for multiple sclerosis. On the basis of shared clinical and laboratory features, idiopathic progressive necrotic myelopathy is indistinguishable from a limited form of Devic disease.
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2/21. A central demyelinating disease with atypical features.

    There are clinical, laboratory and imaging criteria to distinguish multiple sclerosis (MS) from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). While MS has unknown aetiology, NMO is commonly associated with vasculitis and ADEM is supposed to be parainfectious in origin. In the present study, six patients are described from a group of 67 with a central demyelinating disorder whose clinical presentation did not conform to existing diagnostic criteria for ADEM, NMO or MS. Their clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics were studied and analysed. Some features suggested a particular diagnosis but some other features favoured another diagnosis. The features included spinal cord involvement in a large vertical segment with cord swelling, optic neuritis, no lesions in the cerebral cortex, paraplegia with urinary retention during the acute phase, no oligoclonal band in cerebrospinal fluid, absence of any evidence of vasculitis, wide time-gap between spinal cord and optic nerve involvement, good recovery from acute phase of disease and a relatively benign course. We conclude that there exists a subpopulation of patients with central demyelinating disease in this region with mixed clinical features. overall features suggested either a widened clinical spectrum of MS, NMO or ADEM or a possible overlap between them.
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keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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3/21. Recurrent neuromyelitis optica with diffuse central nervous system involvement: case report.

    Several demyelinating disorders can affect children. The differential diagnosis between these diseases is usually an arduous task. Diagnostic criteria have been proposed for some of these disorders, however most of them have not yet been clinically and prospectively validated. Here we present a case of a ten year-old boy with recurrent bilateral optic neuritis and spinal cord involvement. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid data have fulfilled diagnostic criteria for Devic's neuromyelitis optica (NMO). The differential diagnosis with multiple sclerosis (MS) has become troublesome since not only optic nerves and spinal cord were involved. In one of the relapses a left hemiparesis with facial involvement was registered. magnetic resonance imaging was also compatible with MS. This case illustrates that CNS demyelinating disorders can fulfill diagnostic criteria for more than one demyelinating disease, making the clinical judgment an important tool in the management of these patients.
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4/21. Devic's neuromyelitis optica and mitochondrial dna mutation: a case report.

    Cases are described with Leber's optic atrophy and neurological symptoms and/or MRI lesions suggestive of multiple sclerosis. We describe a case of a young woman with Devic's neuromyelitis optica and 3460 homoplasmic mitochondrial dna mutation.
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5/21. Gluten sensitivity and neuromyelitis optica: two case reports.

    neuromyelitis optica is a clinical syndrome characterised by acute transverse myelitis plus an acute or subacute optic neuritis with or without recovery. Although once believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis, diagnostic criteria have recently been proposed for neuromyelitis optica, making it a clinically distinct syndrome. The term gluten sensitivity refers to a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals, as indicated by circulating antibodies to gliadin. Several neurological complications have been described associated with gluten sensitivity ranging from peripheral neuropathy and cerebellar ataxia to an increased risk of epilepsy. Although myelopathy has been described in some case reports of coeliac disease, neuromyelitis optica has never been described in association with gluten sensitivity. We describe two cases of gluten sensitivity presenting as neuromyelitis optica with no previous history of significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Gluten sensitivity was confirmed by immunological and histological studies.
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6/21. Progressive necrotizing myelopathy: part of the spectrum of neuromyelitis optica?

    This case series reviews the clinical, radiographic and laboratory findings of five patients with progressive idiopathic myelopathy with evidence of cord necrosis who presented in our institution over a 5 year period ending in May 2005. patients fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) presentation with myelopathy without overt visual involvement at initial presentation; (2) demonstration with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contiguously abnormal signal in the spinal cord spanning at least three vertebral segments without evidence of arteriovenous malformation or significant disk disease; (3) absence of systemic disease or neoplasm. All patients were women, identified themselves as African American and were older than 35 years. Pain was reported at initial presentation in four cases. The distinctive feature was a relapsing course with intervening variable improvement of function and progression to quadriplegia in less than 4 years. An increased IgG index and/or oligoclonal banding was detected in two patients. The leukocyte count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was elevated in all cases but in only one specimen did the count exceed 50 cells. None of the patients initially had clinical signs of an optic neuropathy but unilaterally prolonged visual evoked potentials were present in one individual who went on to developed optic neuritis 19 months after the first clinical presentation. Another patient developed optic neuritis 45 months after disease onset. Immunomodulatory and plasma exchange therapy were of some benefit at least early in the course but the disease progressed despite these interventions. neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG antibody, a serum or CSF marker described in individuals with classic NMO and optico-spinal multiple sclerosis (MS), was present in all cases. On the basis of shared clinical and imaging features in the cord, progressive necrotizing myelopathy observed in this case series exhibits key features of a limited form of NMO (Devic's disease) and opticospinal MS. The presence of NMO-IgG antibody marker suggests that progressive necrotizing myelopathy is part of a disease spectrum of which traditional NMO is a select presentation.
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keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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7/21. Loss of aquaporin-4 in active perivascular lesions in neuromyelitis optica: a case report.

    neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is clinically characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. In japan, NMO has been named optic-spinal multiple sclerosis (OSMS) and it has been thought to be a subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, several clinical and laboratory findings suggest NMO or OSMS is distinct from MS. Recently, the disease-specific antibody (NMO-IgG) was found in the serum from NMO patients, and its target antigen was identified as aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel protein which is mainly expressed in astroglial foot processes. However, the pathogenetic role of AQP4 in NMO remains unknown. We herein report a typical case of NMO in which immunohistochemical analysis showed a lack of AQP4 in the spinal cord lesions. The loss of AQP4 was evident in the central gray matter, especially in the perivascular lesions where immunoglobulins and complements were deposited, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) staining was weak in those lesions. However, GFAP was strongly stained at the reactive astrogliosis surrounding the lesions. myelin basic protein (MBP)-stained myelinated fibers were relatively preserved in the lesions where AQP4 was lost. In contrast to these NMO lesions, AQP4 was expressed predominantly in the gray matter in control spinal cords, and AQP4 was preserved in demyelinating MS lesions. Our findings suggest that astrocytic impairment associated with humoral immunity against AQP4 may be primarily involved in the lesion formation of NMO, and that the pathomechanisms of NMO are different from those of MS in which demyelination is the primary pathology.
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keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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8/21. neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin g in a child.

    neuromyelitis optica or Devic's syndrome is an uncommon demyelinating disorder that preferentially attacks the spinal cord and optic nerves. Although it is well described in adults, childhood neuromyelitis optica has rarely been reported in the literature and is frequently misdiagnosed as severe multiple sclerosis. Recently, a serum immunoglobulin g test for neuromyelitis optica has become available which may clarify and accelerate the diagnosis. This report describes a child with recurrent myelitis and an elongated spinal cord lesion who was found to have positive neuromyelitis optica autoantibody. We believe that neuromyelitis optica autoantibody testing should be performed in cases of pediatric transverse myelitis with multiple vertical segments or recurrence.
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9/21. Devic's neuromyelitis optica: long-term follow-up and serial CSF findings in two cases.

    Sixteen cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens serially obtained during long-term follow-up of two patients with Devic's neuromyelitis optica (DNO) were compared with 65 CSF samples from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). By statistical analysis, the CSF profile in DNO was found to differ from that observed in MS, mainly showing pleocytosis, blood-brain barrier damage, and absence of persistent immunoglobulin g synthesis within the central nervous system. oligoclonal bands, detected with isoelectric focusing, were present in CSF of 92% of the patients with MS, and in three CSF specimens from one patient with DNO during the first 6 months after disease onset. The bands disappeared in two subsequent samples. This finding has never been described in MS. One patient with DNO had an apparent chronic-relapsing course probably due to steroid dependence. The clinical and CSF features of our cases favour the nosographic independence of DNO and MS.
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keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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10/21. neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease) report of one case.

    neuromyelitis optica also named Devic's disease is an acute combined optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. It is thought to be a variant of multiple sclerosis, but its clinical presentation probably has only one attack without further recurrence and exacerbation. We present a 12-year-old girl who suffered from sudden onset of lower extremeties weakness, sensory loss and blurred vision after a prodromal URI symptom. CSF examination showed mild pleocytosis, elevated immunoglobulins, mild elevation of protein concentration. No oligoclonal band was detected. serum virology showed high titer of anti-EB virus antibody. Visual evoke potential showed prolong of latency and decreased amplitude of both eyes. After prednisolone treatment, her visual accuity began to improve on the 7th hospital day and motor function improved on the 11th hospital day. Two years later, she has normal visual accuity, normal motor function and shows no evidence of disease recurrence.
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