Cases reported "Neutropenia"

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1/3. Dizygotic twin sisters with myelokathexis: mechanism of its neutropenia.

    Dizygotic twin sisters were first found to have neutropenia at 1 year of age when evaluated for recurrent pulmonary infections. Since then they have remained neutropenic (0.05 approximately 0.5 x 10(9)/l). Despite of their neutropenia, myeloid hyperplasia was evident on a marrow smear examination, and a number of cells were hypersegmented with fine interlobular bridging with chromatin strands and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Electron microscopy showed apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies in the cytoplasm. Although life span, hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis, spreading, and chemotaxis of peripheral neutrophils were normal, the survival of bone marrow neutrophils in both infants was markedly decreased when compared with that of normal bone marrow neutrophils. During the bone marrow culture apoptotic neutrophils were observed at an earlier stage in both patients than in normal controls, biochemically and morphologically. Morphology of bone marrow neutrophils in both patients resembled that of cultured control bone marrow neutrophils. Peripheral neutropenia and appearance of characteristic neutrophils in the bone marrow in myelokathexis are considered to be an expression of apoptosis of bone marrow neutrophils.
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ranking = 1
keywords = apoptosis
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2/3. Myelokathexis, a congenital disorder of severe neutropenia characterized by accelerated apoptosis and defective expression of bcl-x in neutrophil precursors.

    Myelokathexis is a congenital disorder that causes severe chronic leukopenia and neutropenia. Characteristic findings include degenerative changes and hypersegmentation of mature neutrophils and hyperplasia of bone marrow myeloid cells. The associated neutropenia can be partially corrected by treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). These features led us to propose that accelerated apoptosis of neutrophil precursors might account for the neutropenic phenotype. blood and bone marrow aspirates were obtained from 4 patients (2 unrelated families) with myelokathexis before G-CSF therapy and from 2 of the affected persons after G-CSF therapy (1 microg/kg per day subcutaneously for 3 weeks). Bone marrow was fractionated using immunomagnetic bead cell sorting into CD34( ), CD33( )/CD34(-), and CD15( )/CD34(-)/CD33(- )cell populations. Examination of these cells by flow cytometry and electron microscopy revealed abundant apoptosis in the CD15( ) neutrophil precursor population, characterized by enhanced annexin-V binding, extensive membrane blebbing, condensation of heterochromatin, and cell fragmentation. Colony-forming assays demonstrated significant reduction in a proportion of bone marrow myeloid-committed progenitor cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a selective decrease in bcl-x, but not bcl-2, expression in the CD15( )/CD34(-)/CD33(-)cell population compared with similar subpopulations of control bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors. After G-CSF therapy, apoptotic features of patients' bone marrow cells were substantially reduced, and the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) and expression of bcl-x in CD15( )/CD34(-)/CD33(-)cells increased. The authors concluded that myelokathexis is a disease characterized by the accelerated apoptosis of granulocytes and the depressed expression of bcl-x in bone marrow-derived granulocyte precursor cells. These abnormalities are partially corrected by the in vivo administration of G-CSF. (blood. 2000;95:320-327)
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ranking = 7
keywords = apoptosis
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3/3. A new disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis: combination of autoimmunity, infectious lymphadenopathy, double negative T cells, and impaired activation-induced cell death.

    A new symptom-complex is described characterized by manifestations of autoimmune disease, infectious lymphadenopathy, double negative T cells, and impaired activation-induced cell death that developed in late adolescence. Similarities, but also significant differences, to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes (ALPS, Canale-Smith syndrome) and autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (ALD, Dianzani syndrome), were observed. The main clinical features were recurrent bacterial infections with subsequent lymphadenopathy due to autoimmune neutropenia. Laboratory results revealed a large proportion of alphabetaTCR positive, CD4 negative, CD8 negative, peripheral T cells, and a decreased apoptosis upon activation with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin 2, but normal Fas-mediated apoptosis. Genetic investigations excluded mutations in Fas gene death domain and in the 4 exons of Fas ligand gene. Despite unknown pathogenesis, this new syndrome might belong to the growing group of diseases with defects in apoptosis.
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ranking = 7
keywords = apoptosis
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