Cases reported "Neutropenia"

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1/276. pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients and in bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplant recipients: use of high-resolution computed tomography.

    PURPOSE: To obtain statistical data on the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for early detection of pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients with unknown focus of infection. MATERIALS AND methods: One hundred eighty-eight HRCT studies were performed prospectively in 112 neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin persisting for more than 48 hours despite empiric antibiotic treatment. Fifty-four of these studies were performed in transplant recipients. All patients had normal chest roentgenograms. If pneumonia was detected by HRCT, guided bronchoalveolar lavage was recommended. Evidence of pneumonia on chest roentgenograms during follow-up and micro-organisms detected during follow-up were regarded as documentation of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 188 HRCT studies, 112 (60%) showed pneumonia and 76 were normal. documentation of pneumonia was possible in 61 cases by chest roentgenography or micro-organism detection (54%) (P < 10(-6)). Sensitivity of HRCT was 87% (88% in transplant recipients), specificity was 57% (67%), and the negative predictive value was 88% (97%). A time gain of 5 days was achieved by the additional use of HRCT compared to an exclusive use of chest roentgenography. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of inflammatory pulmonary disease after a suspicious HRCT scan (> 50%) proves that pneumonia is not excluded by a normal chest roentgenogram. Given the significantly longer duration of febrile episodes in transplant recipients, HRCT findings are particularly relevant in this subgroup. patients with normal HRCT scans, particularly transplant recipients, have a low risk of pneumonia during follow-up. All neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin and normal chest roentgenograms should undergo HRCT.
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2/276. candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation.

    The recently described species candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in hiv-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging candida species in hiv-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.
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3/276. Bilateral basal ganglial necrosis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a child with Kostmann syndrome.

    A 6-year-old girl underwent allogeneic BMT from a matched sibling donor for the treatment of Kostmann syndrome. She suddenly became drowsy on day 30 after BMT, and lost consciousness 2 days later. Cranial CT scan showed symmetrical lesions suggesting bilateral necrosis in the basal ganglia. Clinical and laboratory investigations failed to reveal any evidence of neurometabolic disease.
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4/276. Case of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced Sweet's syndrome.

    A 33-year-old male was referred with a two-week history of fevers to 40 degrees C and painful, erythematous skin and oral mucosal eruptions that had failed to respond to multiple anti-infectious agents. He had a recent diagnosis of a "myeloproliferative disorder with myelodysplastic features" on bone marrow biopsy, with associated pancytopenia. Two weeks before admission, he had been treated with a course of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) at a dose of 300 microg/day in an attempt to improve his neutropenia. After four days of treatment, the fever and lesions developed. Infectious evaluation was negative; however, biopsies of the skin and oral mucosal lesions revealed histology consistent with Sweet's syndrome. Intravenous methylprednisolone (30 mg/day) was started with prompt defervescence and resolution of the lesions within days. With the increasing use of G-CSF, Sweet's syndrome is becoming more commonly recognized as an adverse effect. This is the first case of G-CSF-induced Sweet's syndrome to demonstrate gingival involvement.
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5/276. Novel point mutation in the extracellular domain of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor in a case of severe congenital neutropenia hyporesponsive to G-CSF treatment.

    Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by a drastic reduction in circulating neutrophils and a maturation arrest of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Usually this condition can be successfully treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Here we describe the identification of a novel point mutation in the extracellular domain of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R) in an SCN patient who failed to respond to G-CSF treatment. When this mutant G-CSF-R was expressed in myeloid cells, it was defective in both proliferation and survival signaling. This correlated with diminished activation of the receptor complex as determined by signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) activation, although activation of STAT5 was more affected than STAT3. Interestingly, the mutant receptor showed normal affinity for ligand, but a reduced number of ligand binding sites compared with the wild-type receptor. This suggests that the mutation in the extracellular domain affects ligand-receptor complex formation with severe consequences for intracellular signal transduction. Together these data add to our understanding of the mechanisms of cytokine receptor signaling, emphasize the role of GCSFR mutations in the etiology of SCN, and implicate such mutations in G-CSF hyporesponsiveness.
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6/276. Dizygotic twin sisters with myelokathexis: mechanism of its neutropenia.

    Dizygotic twin sisters were first found to have neutropenia at 1 year of age when evaluated for recurrent pulmonary infections. Since then they have remained neutropenic (0.05 approximately 0.5 x 10(9)/l). Despite of their neutropenia, myeloid hyperplasia was evident on a marrow smear examination, and a number of cells were hypersegmented with fine interlobular bridging with chromatin strands and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Electron microscopy showed apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies in the cytoplasm. Although life span, hydrogen peroxide production, phagocytosis, spreading, and chemotaxis of peripheral neutrophils were normal, the survival of bone marrow neutrophils in both infants was markedly decreased when compared with that of normal bone marrow neutrophils. During the bone marrow culture apoptotic neutrophils were observed at an earlier stage in both patients than in normal controls, biochemically and morphologically. Morphology of bone marrow neutrophils in both patients resembled that of cultured control bone marrow neutrophils. Peripheral neutropenia and appearance of characteristic neutrophils in the bone marrow in myelokathexis are considered to be an expression of apoptosis of bone marrow neutrophils.
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7/276. pregnancy in bone marrow failure syndromes: diamond-Blackfan anaemia and Shwachman-diamond syndrome.

    pregnancy in bone marrow failure syndromes has risk to mother and fetus. There are fewer than 30 reports of cases with diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and none with Shwachman-diamond syndrome (SD). We report two DBA and one SD cases. One DBA mother received transfusions intra-partum, and the other only post-partum. Both required caesarean sections (C-sections) for failure of labour to progress and severe pre-eclampsia respectively. Both subsequently resumed pre-pregnancy steroid-induced control of anaemia. approximately 40% of DBA pregnancies required maternal transfusions; 25% delivered by C-section. The SD patient also had Ehlers-Danlos (ED) syndrome and urticaria pigmentosa (UP). Her blood counts were adequate until week 38, when the platelet count dropped and a C-section was performed. pregnancy management in marrow failure disorders requires obstetricians with expertise in high-risk pregnancies, and haematologists with experience with marrow failure syndromes.
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8/276. Treatment of severe neutropenia due to Felty's syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy and safety of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) for the treatment of severe neutropenia due to Felty's syndrome (FS) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). methods: Eight patients with absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) below 1,000/microL attributable to FS (n = 4) or SLE (n = 4) were treated with rhG-CSF. The hematologic and clinical response as well as side effects were recorded. In addition, reports on the use of rhG-CSF/rhGM-CSF in FS and SLE retrieved from the English language literature were analyzed. RESULTS: RhG-CSF effectively corrected neutropenia due to FS and SLE in seven of the current eight patients. In 54 of 55 FS and SLE patients retrieved from the literature, G-CSF or GM-CSF, respectively, proved to be effective at elevating the neutrophil count, which was often associated with improvement of infectious complications. The neutrophil count often declined again when growth factor treatment was stopped but generally stabilized at a level that exceeded the pretreatment count. Side effects included rare cases of thrombocytopenia, arthralgias, and development of cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Side effects were dose dependent and resolved when treatment was discontinued. One of our own patients and 17 previously reported patients continued to benefit from long-term administration of rhG-CSF over periods of more than 40 months. CONCLUSIONS: RhG-CSF is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment for neutropenia due to FS or SLE. Exacerbation of the underlying rheumatic condition due to G-CSF appears to be rare if G-CSF is administered at the lowest dose effective at elevating the ANC above 1,000/microL.
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9/276. Myelokathexis, a congenital disorder of severe neutropenia characterized by accelerated apoptosis and defective expression of bcl-x in neutrophil precursors.

    Myelokathexis is a congenital disorder that causes severe chronic leukopenia and neutropenia. Characteristic findings include degenerative changes and hypersegmentation of mature neutrophils and hyperplasia of bone marrow myeloid cells. The associated neutropenia can be partially corrected by treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). These features led us to propose that accelerated apoptosis of neutrophil precursors might account for the neutropenic phenotype. blood and bone marrow aspirates were obtained from 4 patients (2 unrelated families) with myelokathexis before G-CSF therapy and from 2 of the affected persons after G-CSF therapy (1 microg/kg per day subcutaneously for 3 weeks). Bone marrow was fractionated using immunomagnetic bead cell sorting into CD34( ), CD33( )/CD34(-), and CD15( )/CD34(-)/CD33(- )cell populations. Examination of these cells by flow cytometry and electron microscopy revealed abundant apoptosis in the CD15( ) neutrophil precursor population, characterized by enhanced annexin-V binding, extensive membrane blebbing, condensation of heterochromatin, and cell fragmentation. Colony-forming assays demonstrated significant reduction in a proportion of bone marrow myeloid-committed progenitor cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a selective decrease in bcl-x, but not bcl-2, expression in the CD15( )/CD34(-)/CD33(-)cell population compared with similar subpopulations of control bone marrow-derived myeloid precursors. After G-CSF therapy, apoptotic features of patients' bone marrow cells were substantially reduced, and the absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) and expression of bcl-x in CD15( )/CD34(-)/CD33(-)cells increased. The authors concluded that myelokathexis is a disease characterized by the accelerated apoptosis of granulocytes and the depressed expression of bcl-x in bone marrow-derived granulocyte precursor cells. These abnormalities are partially corrected by the in vivo administration of G-CSF. (blood. 2000;95:320-327)
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10/276. Congenital neutropenia. Report of a case and a biorationale for dental management.

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a marked decrease in or lack of circulating PMN's in children with no prior history of drug intake. The neutropenia is persistent and the clinical course is one of early onset of severe, recurrent, and eventually fatal infections. Bone marrow studies show a maturation arrest of neutrophilic precursors. Because of their greatly increased susceptibility to infection, patients with congenital neutropenia present a difficult dental management problem. A case of congenital neutropenia has been presented, as well as a biorationale for dental treatment. On the basis of reports in the literature, the following recommendations for the management of patients with congenital neutropenia are made: 1. The prevention and control of infection and the interception of dental disease before surgical intervention becomes necessary should be the overriding considerations in the management of patients with congenital neutropenia. 2. The carious breakdown of teeth should be prevented by the daily application of a 0.4 per cent stannous fluoride gel in addition to oral hygiene and limitation of sucrose intake. 3. Periodontal therapy should be palliative only, since alveolar bone loss is progressive despite frequent oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. The goal of periodontal therapy for patients with congenital neutropenia should therefore be a decrease in gingival inflammation to make the patient's mouth more comfortable and to slow down alveolar bone loss. Periodontal surgery is contraindicated. 4. bacteremia and subsequent septicemia should be prevented since a minor infection can become life threatening in patients with congenital neutropenia. The patient should rinse for 30 seconds and the gingival sulci should be irrigated with a phenolated antiseptic mouthwash prior to all dental manipulations of the soft tissue. This will significantly reduce the incidence of bacteremia. 5. Surgery should be avoided if at all possible because of the high risk of post-operative infection. All surgery sholld be performed in the hospital, and the patient should be given antibiotics as determined by his physician. Primary closure should be done with fine polyglycolic acid sutures to reduce the chance of infection. If postoperative infection can be prevented, wound healing will progress normally despite the complete absence of PMN's.
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