Cases reported "Niemann-Pick Diseases"

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1/47. Niemann-Pick disease type C (a cellular cholesterol lipidosis) treated by bone marrow transplantation.

    bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been used for a wide variety of lysosomal storage diseases with encouraging results. We report a 3-year 5-month-old girl with Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) who received an allogeneic BMT. The patient presented with repeated lower respiratory tract infections, hepatosplenomegaly, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed diffuse interstitial lung infiltration. Bone marrow and liver biopsies revealed abundant lipid-filled foamy macrophages. skin fibroblast sphingomyelinase assay revealed partial deficiency. The ability of her skin fibroblasts to esterify cholesterol was very low, and the cells stained brightly for free cholesterol. She received BMT from a healthy HLA-identical male sibling donor at the age of 2 year 6 months. Full engraftment was evidenced by repeated bone marrow sex chromosome studies. Regression of the hepatosplenomegaly, markedly reduced foamy macrophage infiltration in bone marrow, and decreased interstitial lung infiltration was noted 6 months after BMT. Her neurological status, however, deteriorated. Follow-up magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed progressive, diffuse brain atrophy. We conclude that resolution occurred in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lung following successful engraftment. Such a response is remarkable since the underlying problem involves a membrane receptor for cholesterol. This positive response might be due to replacement of the monocyte-phagocytic system or it may imply the existence of cross-correction in the NPC membrane receptor defect by BMT approach. Since BMT did not halt the neurological deterioration, it is unlikely to be an adequate treatment for NPC.
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2/47. Type A Niemann-Pick disease.

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) represents a type of lysosomal storage diseases in which sphingomyelin accumulates in the histocytes and reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow and central nervous system. We report a child with massive hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, mental retardation and widespread papulonodular lesions. His clinical features conform to the type A subgroup of NPD.
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keywords = bone
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3/47. Pulmonary storage with emphysema as a sign of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease (second complementation group). Report of a case.

    A case is described of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease presenting an infantile pneumopathic phenotype known to occur in this recently established, second, minor complementation group of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. However, the pulmonary involvement was unique, being dominated, in addition to the usual storage macrophage infiltration of the alveolar and septal compartments, by irregular emphysema attributed to storage cell migration into the bronchiolar lumen. The latter modified considerably the X-ray findings and hindered the initial clinical diagnosis. Otherwise, the storage phenotype, including the range of stored lipids, storage distribution, and cell and organ pathology, was found to be identical to that in the whole Niemann-Pick type C disease group dominated by NPC1. The biochemical findings (cholesterol esterification level) corresponded to the classical biochemical phenotype. emphysema should thus be considered as a variant of the pulmonary NPC2 storage process, governed most probably by an epigenetic mechanism responsible for storage macrophage migration into the bronchiolar compartment.
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keywords = macrophage
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4/47. Imaging of pulmonary manifestations in subtype B of Niemann-Pick disease.

    We report the radiological and high resolution CT (HRCT) findings of the pulmonary involvement in a case of subtype B Niemann-Pick disease, diagnosed in an asymptomatic 22-year-old man, which was proved by bone marrow biopsy and sphingomyelinase assessment. In the present case, HRCT showed smooth interlobular septa thickening and a subtle ground-glass pattern.
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5/47. Sea-blue histiocytosis secondary to Niemann-Pick disease type B: a case report.

    Sea-blue histiocytosis is a morphological finding that can be associated both with acquired conditions of increased cellular turnover and inborn errors of lipid metabolism. We report a rare case of sea-blue histiocytosis associated with a mild phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type B in a 44-year-old man who presented with splenomegaly and mild thrombocytopenia. diagnosis was guided by the morphological finding in bone marrow smears of foamy and sea-blue histiocytes and confirmed by the measurement of acid lysosomal sphingomyelinase activity below normal values. NPD type B is a rare inborn error of metabolism, with a benign course and prognosis, while types A and C are always associated with severe neurological involvement. In our patient diagnosis was confirmed by the specific enzyme assay of leukocytes (deficiency in sphingomyelinase activity). This is a simple and noninvasive method that is useful whenever clinical and morphological finding are relevant, and a primary hematological disorder has been ruled out.
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6/47. Hepatosplenomegaly and progressive neurological symptoms - Late manifestation of Niemann-Pick disease type C - a case report -.

    Niemann-Pick disease type C is an inborn error of metabolism that affects lipid degradation and storage. Hepatosplenomegaly and progressive neurological symptoms are the main clinical features. We present a case of an adult-onset type of Niemann-Pick disease in a 33-year-old woman who initially presented with dysarthria. At first, laboratory findings suggested Wilson's disease. laparoscopy showed macroscopic signs of liver cirrhosis and histology did not confirm Wilson's disease. After bone marrow biopsy showed characteristic sea-blue histiocytes, Niemann-Pick disease was suspected and confirmed by filipin stain of cultured fibroblasts.Though rarely encountered, lipid storage disease should be suspected especially in younger patients with organomegaly and progressive signs of neurologic disease.
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keywords = bone
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7/47. Niemann-Pick disease-type C: a case report.

    We report a case, with foamy histocytes in the bone marrow and eye movement abnormalities which is characteristic for Niemann Pick disease Type-C.
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8/47. frontal lobe atrophy due to a mutation in the cholesterol binding protein HE1/NPC2.

    This is the first description of slowly progressive Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) without the typical lysosomal storage in bone marrow and viscera in two descendants of a group of 17th century French-Canadians. The index patient was a married 43-year-old woman with onset of dementia in her thirties, later followed by the development of ataxia and athetoid movements. Her autopsy disclosed frontal lobe atrophy, neurolysosomal storage with oligolamellar inclusion and tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles. Of the 119 family members screened, only a married 42-year-old sister displayed symptoms of a dementia. Both women displayed vertical supranuclear ophthalmoplegia; expressive aphasia; concrete, stimulus-bound, perseverative behavior; and impaired conceptualization and planning. Cultured fibroblasts showed decreased cholesterol esterification and positive filipin staining, but no mutation was detected in coding or promoter regions of the NPC1 gene using conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Sequencing showed a homozygous gene mutation that is predicted to result in an amino acid substitution, V39M, in the cholesterol binding protein HE1 (NPC2). adult-onset NPC2 with lysosomal storage virtually restricted to neurons represents a novel phenotypic and genotypic variant with diffuse cognitive impairment and focal frontal involvement described for the first time.
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keywords = bone
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9/47. bone marrow transplantation for Niemann-Pick type IA disease.

    bone marrow transplantation has been undertaken with encouraging results as therapy for a wide variety of lysosomal storage diseases. We report a case of Niemann-Pick disease Type IA in which, despite the presence of only mild hypotonia with depressed reflexes, the clinical course of the disease appeared to be only slightly modified by this procedure, which was performed at the earliest practical opportunity. The patient was diagnosed early when asymptomatic, because of a family history of an affected sibling who died at 14 months. He received a bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical, MLC non-reactive sibling donor, whose leukocyte sphingomyelinase activity was in the homozygote normal range. There was adequate engraftment as evidenced by persistently normal leukocyte sphingomyelinase activities, and there was no evidence of graft-versus-host disease. Visceral storage and neurological impairment were less rapidly progressive than in his untreated sibling but he eventually died at 30 months. autopsy confirmed that this was essentially due to the effects of the underlying Niemann-Pick disease. We conclude that despite some success in other neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorders, bone marrow transplantation is not likely to be an adequate treatment for Niemann-Pick disease Type IA.
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keywords = bone
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10/47. Clinical, pathologic, and biochemical features of a cholesterol lipidosis accompanied by hyperlipidemia and xanthomas.

    We describe the unique clinical and histopathologic features of a child with biochemical and immunocytochemical features of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Clinically, she was found to have multiple xanthomas of the upper aerodigestive tract with dysphagia and expressive language delay, splenomegaly, bony infarcts, and type IIb hyperlipidemia. neurologic examination was otherwise normal. microscopy revealed foam cells in her bone marrow, liver, tongue, tonsils, glottis, and in normal-appearing peritonsillar mucosa. Lipid analysis of a liver biopsy specimen showed a small increase in phospholipids, a twofold increase in sphingomyelin, a fivefold increase in cholesterol, and a marked (25-fold) increase in bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate. Lysosomal acid hydrolase activities in cultured skin fibroblasts were nondiagnostic. Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies of cultured fibroblasts demonstrated lysosomal accumulation of unesterified LDL-derived cholesterol as well as delayed induction of homeostatic responses to endogenous cholesterol consistent with a diagnosis of NPC. Based upon these observations, we speculate that this patient could have a new phenotypic expression of NPC or represents a new cholesterol lipidosis biochemically resembling NPC. The chance occurrence of two separate lipid disorders seems less likely.
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