Cases reported "Night Blindness"

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1/5. An electrophysiological follow-up study on acquired unilateral nyctalopia.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical picture and electrophysiological findings in acquired unilateral nyctalopia. methods: A patient who had acquired unilateral visual loss with normal fundus was followed for a period of 2.5 years with basic ophthalmological examinations including standard electroretinogram and photopic on and off responses. RESULTS: A 46-year-old woman suffered from acquired unilateral nyctalopia. She complained of photopsia and blurred vision in her left eye. The initial examination of the left eye showed 1 cells in the anterior chamber and a granular appearance in the fovea. After 1 month of treatment she still complained of photopsia in her left eye. ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography revealed no abnormality in either eye. A bright flash electroretinogram (ERG) in the left eye was a negative shape. Photopic ERG elicited by a 150 ms stimulus showed a depressed b-wave and enhanced a- and d-waves in the left eye. CONCLUSIONS: This ERG waveform suggested that the transmission between photoreceptor and on-bipolar cell might be affected by idiopathic retinal disease.
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keywords = retinal disease
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2/5. Paradoxic pupillary phenomena. A review of patients with pupillary constriction to darkness.

    The presence of pupillary constriction to darkness is said to be a useful indicator of retinal disease. However, it is also associated with optic nerve disease. The phenomenon has been reported in patients with congenital stationary nightblindness, congenital achromatopsia, bilateral optic neuritis, and dominant optic atrophy. We have observed this response in additional disorders, including anomalies of the optic nerve development, congenital nystagmus, and a variety of diseases affecting the retina. Notably, four of our patients with strabismus and amblyopia, but without apparent retinal or optic nerve disease, have also demonstrated this paradoxic pupil response. While the mechanism for pupillary constriction to darkness remains unclear, the finding of this response in patients without retinal or optic nerve abnormalities questions its value as a localizing sign.
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keywords = retinal disease
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3/5. Quantitative eye and head movement recordings of retinal disease mimicking spasmus nutans.

    PURPOSE/methods: To investigate whether quantitative head and eye movement recordings can distinguish patients with spasmus nutans from patients with retinal diseases mimicking spasmus nutans. A patient with congenital stationary night blindness was followed up for seven years with electro-oculographic eye movement recordings. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Rhythmic head movements and fine, intermittent, asymmetric, disconjugate, high-frequency, out-of-phase pendular nystagmus were recorded. eye and head movement recordings of patients with congenital stationary night blindness can mimic spasmus nutans.
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ranking = 5
keywords = retinal disease
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4/5. Retinal disease masquerading as spasmus nutans.

    Two children with congenital stationary night blindness were originally diagnosed as having spasmus nutans. Both children had the typical features of spasmus nutans including asymmetric nystagmus, head shaking, and torticollis. The diagnosis of congenital stationary night blindness was established only after each child underwent electroretinography. The nystagmus associated with retinal disease can mimic many of the features of spasmus nutans. Children suspected of having spasmus nutans should undergo complete ophthalmologic examination and electroretinography if they are myopic.
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keywords = retinal disease
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5/5. Nondetectable S-cone electroretinogram in a patient with crystalline retinopathy.

    We examined cone and rod electroretinograms to ganzfeld stimuli in a patient with crystalline retinopathy. The 54-year-old man complained of night blindness, blurred vision, and metamorphopsia in both eyes. His visual acuity was 10/200 in the right eye and 10/20 in the left eye; his subjective dark-adaptation threshold was elevated 1 log unit, and he made one tritan error on the Farnsworth Panel D-15. Specular microscopic examinations revealed tiny crystalline deposits in the limbal cornea bilaterally. Ophthalmoscopically, crystalline deposits were found in the posterior fundi. His light-adapted cone electroretinograms to white stimuli were diminished (about 30% of those of normal controls), with normal implicit times. His dark-adapted rod electroretinogram amplitudes were 10% of those of normal controls. The S-cone electroretinogram was not detectable to different spectral stimuli with strong white background, while the L-M-cone responses appeared normal in waveforms with reduced amplitude. These ERG results indicated that the patient's S-cone system is more highly impaired than the L-M-cone system, supporting the psychophysical evidence that the S-cone system is more vulnerable than other cone systems in retinal diseases.
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keywords = retinal disease
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