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1/19. Dopaminergic therapy in children with restless legs/periodic limb movements in sleep and ADHD. Dopaminergic Therapy Study Group.

    The long-term effects of monotherapy with levodopa or the dopamine agonist pergolide on the motor/sensory, behavioral, and cognitive variables in seven children with restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Five of the seven children had previously been treated with stimulants that had either been determined to be ineffective or to have intolerable side effects. Dopaminergic therapy improved the symptoms of RLS and reduced the number of PLMS per hour of sleep (P = 0.018) and associated arousals (P = 0.042) for the entire group. After treatment, three children no longer met the criteria for ADHD, and three reverted to normal on the Test of Variable attention. ADHD improved in all seven as measured by the Connors parent rating scale (P<0.04) and the child behavior checklist (P<0.05). A significant improvement also occurred in the visual, but not verbal, memory scores on the Wide Range Assessment of memory and learning (P<0.001). Five of seven children continue on dopaminergic therapy 3 years after treatment initiation, with good response. We postulate that the improvement in ADHD may be the result of the amelioration of RLS/PLMS and its associated sleep disturbance. Alternatively, ADHD and RLS/PLMS may share a common dopaminergic deficit. ( info)

2/19. Transverse myelitis associated with restless legs syndrome and periodic movements of sleep responsive to an oral dopaminergic agent but not to intrathecal baclofen.

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are related sleep disorders that occur with increased frequency in spinal cord disease. Effective treatment may be obtained with dopaminergic or opioid drugs, while anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, and possibly baclofen may be helpful. This report describes a patient who developed RLS and PLMD after acute transverse myelitis associated with infectious mononucleosis, and failed to respond to intrathecal baclofen. All symptoms of RLS/PLMD resolved after treatment with pergolide. ( info)

3/19. Unilateral periodic limb movements during sleep in corticobasal degeneration.

    Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLM) have been associated with several degenerative disorders and other focal or diffuse diseases. We present a patient with clinical diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration and sleep complaints, in whom video recording and polygraphic study confirmed the presence of right PLM. The unilaterality of the movements and the positron emission tomography findings (hypometabolism in the left frontoparietal, basal ganglia, and thalamic areas) suggest that the loss of inhibitory descending central pathways, with origin in the cortex or basal ganglia, may be involved in the pathogenesis of PLM. ( info)

4/19. Periodic limb movement disorder : a clinical and polysomnographic study.

    Periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) is one of the commonest neurological disorders and causes significant disability, if left untreated. However, it is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice, probably due to lack of awareness and/or lack of necessary diagnostic facilities. Restless leg syndrome (RLS), aging, pregnancy, uraemia, iron deficiency, polyneuropathy are some of the common causes of secondary PLMD. Clinical presentation, polysomnographic findings and management of six patients of PLMD have been discussed in this report. ( info)

5/19. Misinterpretation of sleep-breathing disorder by periodic limb movement disorder.

    We report a case of misinterpretation of sleep-disordered breathing due to periodic limb movement disorder. A 67-year-old man was diagnosed with sleep-disordered breathing and subsequently placed on treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The initial diagnostic evaluation did not include measurement of anterior tibialis electromyogram. The respiratory disturbance index of the initial evaluation was 23. After a brief period of nasal CPAP use, the patient discontinued the treatment because no significant change in daytime alertness was noted and signs of CPAP-related insomnia appeared. The patient was restudied polysomnographically with monitoring of anterior tibialis electromyograms. This study identified 392 leg movements of which 65% were associated with brief EEG arousal from sleep. Double-blind analysis of respiratory disturbance and leg movements yielded a total number of 360 arousals in the overnight recording. Eighty-five percent of all respiratory events could be associated with central hypoventilation following periodic limb movement-associated EEG arousal. No significant hypoxia was recorded with these events. We hypothesize that chemoreceptor stimulation secondary to EEG arousal during sleep is responsible for this central hypoventilation. This case report highlights that recording and scoring of leg movements must be an integral part of polysomnographic evaluations. ( info)

6/19. Effects of apomorphine on flexor reflex and periodic limb movement.

    It has been suggested that periodic leg movements (PLM) and spinal flexor reflex (FR) share common mechanisms. Although dopaminergic agents improve PLM in humans and strongly influence spinal FR circuitry in animal studies, its effects on FR have not been documented in humans. We describe a 65-year-old man with PLM after overnight withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. The electromyographic pattern of spontaneous PLM closely resembled that of the FR elicited by medial plantar nerve stimulation. Thirty minutes after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine, both PLM and FR were completely abolished. These findings demonstrate that dopaminergic agents can suppress exaggerated FR in humans, and support the hypothesis of common mechanisms for PLM and FR. ( info)

7/19. sleep disorders.

    humans spend approximately one third of their lives asleep. Although the same medical disorders that occur during wakefulness persist into sleep, there are many disorders that occur exclusively during sleep or are manifestations of a disturbance of normal sleep-wake physiology. The most common reason for referral to a sleep laboratory is OSA, whereas the most common sleep disorder is insomnia. Effective treatments now exist for many sleep disorders, such as OSA and RLS, and a major breakthrough in the treatment of narcolepsy seems imminent. Because all disease processes are adversely affected by insufficient sleep, it is essential that the practicing physician understand the causes and treatments of the common sleep disorders. ( info)

8/19. Development of restless legs syndrome after dopaminergic treatment in a patient with periodic leg movements in sleep.

    Periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) unrelated to restless legs syndrome (RLS) are a polysomnographic finding with a controversial clinical value. We describe a patient with isolated periodic leg movements in sleep (without any awake or sleep complaints), who developed severe diurnal RLS symptoms a few months after starting dopaminergic treatment, a phenomenon mimicking augmentation. The diurnal RLS symptoms disappeared after withdrawal of the dopaminergic drugs. serum ferritin levels were relatively low (31-61 mcg/l; normal: 30-400 mcg/l). Since low levels of ferritin have been implicated in the genesis of RLS, and augmentation is a phenomenon associated with RLS, our findings here suggest that asymptomatic PLMS may have pathogenic mechanisms similar to RLS. Isolated PLMS and RLS could be, at least in some cases, different clinical forms of the same disorder. The conjunction of dopaminergic treatment with low ferritin levels may expose a patient with isolated PLMS to the development of RLS. Discontinuation of dopaminergic drugs in patients with isolated PLMS who develop RLS during the course of the treatment would be a reasonable recommendation. ( info)

9/19. Periodic limb movement during sleep developed after pontine lesion.

    We describe 2 patients who suffered a pontine infarction and subsequently developed periodic leg movement (PLM). The temporal relationship between a stroke and subsequent PLM, as well as the absence of sleep-related disorders in patients' histories, favors the argument of a cause-and-effect relationship, with the observed association providing evidence for an anatomic substrate for PLM. ( info)

10/19. Status dissociatus after surgery for tegmental ponto-mesencephalic cavernoma: a state-dependent disorder of motor control during sleep.

    After surgery for a tegmental ponto-mesencephalic cavernoma, a patient developed sleep-related excessive fragmentary myoclonus, diffuse myoclonic jerks, simple quasipurposeful movements of the limbs, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder as motor features of status dissociatus, a condition in which elements of one state of being (wake, NREM and REM sleep) pathologically intrude into another. ( info)
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