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11/152. Alar haematoma.

    We present two cases of alar haematoma. This is a very rare complication of nasal trauma, and only two cases have been described previously. One case presented late and did not undergo surgical drainage and has a persistent cosmetic deformity. We recommend early surgical drainage when possible.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nasal
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12/152. Computer aided three-dimensional analysis of nostril forms: application in normal and operated cleft lip patients.

    The appearance of the nostril in cleft lip patients is very important in the subjective assessment of naso-labial forms and patient satisfaction. To improve the outcome of plastic surgery, a computer aided diagnostic system was developed. Facial forms were measured with a three-dimensional optical scanner (Ogis Range Finder RFX-IV) XYZ coordinates (256x240) and RGB (red, green, blue) image (512x480) data sets were then obtained with the apparatus. The nostril area was determined by discriminant analysis of the RGB data, and the landmarks of the nostril were extracted under geometric conditions. To assess the reliability of this technique with head inclination, five volunteers were measured in seven postures. Landmark stability was within approximately 1 mm when the Frankfort plane was 45-60 degrees. Subsequently, this system was applied to two cleft lip patients who had undergone a secondary nasal correction. For control data, 37 healthy adults (22 males and 15 females) were measured in the same manner. Nasal asymmetry in the unilateral case and wide and flat nostrils in the bilateral case were greatly improved after surgery. Conversely, the volume of the nasal tip decreased. This system was a great help in the diagnosis of nostril abnormalities.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nasal
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13/152. Triple-flap technique for reconstruction of large nasal defects.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the usefulness of a triple-flap technique for repair of large zone 2 Mohs defects of the nose. methods: The triple-flap technique was performed on 10 fresh adult cadaver heads that had been injected intravascularly with blue dye. Two distances were measured and recorded: (1) the distance from the most lateral portion of the alar crease to the transverse facial artery; and (2) the distance from the dorsal nasal artery to the medial canthi. Data were also collected on patient age and sex and on the size of the Mohs defect in a series of 10 patients. RESULTS: The cadaver study showed that the dorsal nasal artery was located a mean distance of 7.4 mm superior to the medial canthal tendon and that the transverse facial artery was located a mean distance of 19.2 mm lateral to the alar crease. In our series of 10 patients (2 of whom are described herein), zone 2 defects (including full-thickness unilateral alar defects) as large as 3.5 x 5.0 cm were reconstructed in 1 stage using local anesthesia. No flap loss resulted. CONCLUSIONS: cadaver dissection enabled us to identify the blood supply of the dorsal nasal flap in relation to the medial canthal tendon and the blood supply to the superior melolabial flap in relation to the alar crease. For a select group of patients with large zone 2 Mohs defects of the nose, the use of the triple-flap technique to repair the defect is a viable alternative to the use of a forehead flap technique.
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ranking = 21.503825049214
keywords = nose, nasal
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14/152. Nasal angiocentric lymphoma: an entity that should be remembered.

    After four nasal aesthetic functional surgeries in a period of 18 months, a 46-year-old woman was evaluated who presented with moderate functional alteration, saddle-nose deformity, and total loss of the septal cartilage. Four months before presentation the patient sustained severe nasal trauma, resulting in depression of the nasal bridge without loss of function. Her problem was diagnosed initially as a consequence of an infected septal hematoma and loss of the septal cartilage. Based on this diagnosis, the patient was subjected, in an 18-month period, to four reconstructive surgeries by different specialists, without any improvement and with worsening of clinical presentation. During the authors' physical examination of the patient, she demonstrated marked nasal cutaneous retraction, atrophic nasal conchae with total loss of the septal cartilage, and a large loss of septal bone. Three nasal mucosa biopsies were acquired and the authors proceeded to carry out complete nasal reconstruction using external cranial table and rib cartilage. Histopathologically, a lesion was noted that was compatible with angiocentric lymphoma, for which treatment was administered according to this type of illness. The authors point out the importance of establishing an adequate diagnosis in the face of an apparently obvious clinical case, present cross-disciplinary treatment, and discuss the study protocol that should be used for this type of pathology. They present their reconstructive technique of the nasal structure using a combination of bone tissue and cartilage, the results, and the current state of the patient.
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ranking = 22.503825049214
keywords = nose, nasal
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15/152. osteotomy techniques to correct posttraumatic deviation of the nasal pyramid: a technical note.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Correction of the deviated nasal pyramid is frequently incomplete and may result in a sub-optimal surgical outcome. Precise anatomic analysis of the deformity and a thorough understanding of available techniques improve the surgical osteotomy. methods AND MATERIALS: The advantages and disadvantages of the various osteotomy techniques are analyzed, based on the cadaver studies and clinical experience of the authors. The cadaver studies demonstrate the anatomic results when various osteotomes are used in specified ways. Clinical outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic nose deviations correlate well with these results. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: A thorough understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of various osteotomy techniques enables the surgeon to apply them to specific anatomical deformities in posttraumatic nose deviations more precisely. In general, perforating osteotomies preserve more soft tissue support than the linear osteotomies. Sequential osteotomies, occasionally combined with intermediate osteotomies, are useful in straightening the extremely deviated nasal pyramid.
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ranking = 20.503825049214
keywords = nose, nasal
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16/152. Rhinophycomycosis.

    Rhinophycomycosis, a subcutaneous fungal infection, is less uncommon than many other frequently cited granulomatous lesions of the paranasal sinuses. Four illustrative cases are presented with their characteristic clinical, radiological and histopathological features. The initial origin of the swelling was always in the region of the nasal vestibule and ala. The therapeutic response to potassium iodide, ketaconazole and fluconazole was dramatic and sustained.
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ranking = 2
keywords = nasal
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17/152. Correction of severe secondary cleft lip nasal deformity using a composite graft: current approach and review.

    In the case of a severe tissue deficiency with a secondary cleft lip nasal deformity, a composite graft can be useful for columellar lengthening or to create symmetrical nostrils. The current study used composite grafts to correct secondary cleft lip nasal deformities with a severe tissue deficiency or severe nostril asymmetry. A total of 19 patients who were born with complete cleft type were operated between 1995 and 1999. Of these patients, 10 were men and 9 were women, and the age distribution was 7 to 35 years old. In 9 patients with unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities and in 6 patients with bilateral cleft lip nasal deformities, columellar lengthening was performed using a composite graft taken from the helix in 14 patients and the contralateral alar rim in 1 patient. In 4 patients with severely asymmetrical nostrils resulting from a short alar rim in unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities, the ear helix was used in 2 patients, whereas in the other two patients, the alar rim of the unaffected side was transferred to the affected side to create a symmetrical nostril by reducing the length of the ala on the unaffected side. The follow-up period ranged from 1 to 3 years, and results were as follows: Four days after the graft, the composite tissue exhibited a pinkish color, and complete survival was confirmed after 7 days. The absorption rate was approximately 10% and the color mismatch became minimal with time. Composite tissue from the ear was found to be useful for full-layer reconstruction of the ala and columella because of its stiffness, thin nature, and similarity. Composite tissue from the alar rim on the contralateral side was also determined to be a good material for full-layer reconstruction of the deficient ala.
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ranking = 9
keywords = nasal
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18/152. The frontonasal flap for increased exposure in posttraumatic nasal deformity: a technical overview.

    Nasal reconstruction continues to be a surgical challenge. The prominent location of the nose, the unique quality and texture of its skin, and the intricacies of its cartilaginous and bony infrastructure demand careful attention to fine detail. Attempts to refine reconstructive techniques have resulted in a myriad of local flaps. The frontonasal flap is well-described and reliable, but it is infrequently used. A brief review of the literature is presented. The authors describe a unique case of a 64-year-old woman with posttraumatic nasal tip and dorsal deformity. The frontonasal flap provided soft tissue coverage for the nasal tip and allowed excellent exposure for reconstruction of the hard nasal framework with cartilage and bone grafts. It provides local tissue with excellent contour, color, and texture match, and can be performed in one stage.
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ranking = 20.251912524607
keywords = nose, nasal
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19/152. Management of avulsive injuries of the nasal bones: review of the literature and three case reports.

    Blunt contusions, lacerations, and avulsion-type trauma are the most often reported nasal injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents. The nasal skeleton and soft tissues are frequently involved and may require surgical repair of the injuries. The primary reconstruction often requires the use of autogenous grafts, and secondary revision surgery may be necessary. The treatment may require a multidisciplinary surgical team or a single surgeon who knows how to manage the injury. Optimally, the reconstruction of nasal bone avulsions is performed primarily, using autogenous graft materials. This article presents reconstruction of the nasal deformities in 3 patients involved in motor vehicle accidents. The authors describe and evaluate the various graft materials and surgical techniques utilized. The advantages and disadvantages of autogenous and alloplastic materials are discussed. Studies with more patients and long-term follow-up are required for a definitive evaluation.
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ranking = 8
keywords = nasal
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20/152. External rhinoplasty approach for repair of posttraumatic nasal deformity.

    Up to 50% of patients who have suffered a nasal fracture may seek reconstructive surgery because they are dissatisfied with their appearance and/or ability to breathe. Distortion of native anatomy and dissection planes increases with severity of the injury. The external rhinoplasty approach is a biologically sound technique that offers several advantages over endonasal access for the repair of complex nasal deformities. In 30 consecutive posttraumatic rhinoplasty cases over a 2-year period, 27 (90%) patients underwent correction of their deformities via the external rhinoplasty approach. No technique-specific sequelae were encountered, and all patients were satisfied with their respective result and the healing of the transcolumellar incision. This article reviews the advantages, disadvantages, and contraindications of the external rhinoplasty approach in the posttraumatic patient.
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ranking = 7
keywords = nasal
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