Cases reported "Nose Diseases"

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21/74. Lepromatous leprosy: nasal manifestations and treatment with minocycline.

    Nasal involvement in lepromatous leprosy is universal and occurs early in the course of the disease. Nasal symptoms include obstruction, crusting, bleeding, and hyposmia. Traditional therapy with dapsone, rifampin, and clofazimine is limited by its cost and toxicity. minocycline hydrochloride, a tetracycline antibiotic with limited side effects, is promising as a new treatment for leprosy. A case is presented that highlights the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of lepromatous leprosy.
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keywords = obstruction
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22/74. Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma of the nasal cavity: a case report.

    Chondro-osseous respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (COREAH) of the nasal cavity is an exceedingly rare benign lesion of the nasal cavity. We report a case arising in an 11-year-old male patient, who presented with a 6-month history of right-sided nasal obstruction. Examination revealed a large fleshy, tender polyp in the right nasal cavity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the large mass in the anterior nasal cavity extending superiorly to the cribriform plate on the right hand side. The polyp was resected endoscopically and confirmed histologically as a COREAH. The clinical differential diagnosis includes cartilaginous tumours and other hamartomatous lesions. Local resection should be curative.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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23/74. Electron microscopy findings in the nasal mucosa of a patient with stenosis of the nasal vestibule.

    The nasal mucosa humidifies, warms and filters inspired air before it passes to the lower respiratory tract. In order to maintain the physiological activity of the respiratory epithelium, a certain amount of airflow is required. This report describes electron microscopy findings in the nasal mucosa of a patient who had decreased airflow through the nose due to stenosis of the nasal vestibule. Electron microscopic examination of the nasal mucosa revealed stratified squamous epithelium composed of markedly degenerated cells. The findings of abnormal mucosal structure highlight another negative consequence of nasal obstruction in addition to abnormal physiological function of the nose. The negative impact of diminished airflow on the nasal mucosa should be considered in any case where the patient has a condition that can lead to partial or total loss of airflow through the nose.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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24/74. A case of giant nasal pyogenic granuloma gravidarum.

    Pyogenic granuloma gravidarum occurs as oral or nasal lesions in approximately 5% of pregnant women. nasal mucosa is an unusual site for this lesion with few cases reported in the literature. A case of giant nasal pyogenic granuloma gravidarum that required radical excision through an open rhinotomy after superselective embolization is described. The patient had a good cosmetic result and a satisfactory airway when she was seen for follow-up 1 year after surgery. Giant pyogenic granuloma gravidarum is best managed with a multidisciplinary approach involving radical excision after preoperative superselective embolization for safe and complete removal of the lesion.
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ranking = 0.20676023839945
keywords = airway
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25/74. Microsurgical reconstruction of the nasal lining.

    BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of isolated nasal lining defects can be extraordinarily daunting. This report defines the uniqueness of the surgical challenges inherent to reconstruction of the nasal lining and overviews the authors' approach to management. methods: A retrospective review was performed of 11 consecutive patients presenting for reconstruction of the nasal lining alone during the period from October of 1996 through March of 2003. There were four men and seven women with an average age of 49.2 years. The average follow-up was 4.2 years. RESULTS: Five patients required reconstruction of the total nasal lining (floor, columella, vestibule), and the remaining reconstructions involved subtotal components. Coincidental necrosis of the nasal lining during total/subtotal nasal reconstruction was the most common cause. A single microsurgical free flap was used in eight patients (six radial forearm flaps). Three patients required two free flaps. There were no flap failures. Thirteen of 14 free flaps healed primarily. Dehiscence of the flap/nasal septal juncture occurred in one cocaine-injured nose. Ten of 11 patients demonstrated patent, functional nasal airways postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Reconstruction of the nasal lining, alone, is a very challenging endeavor that demands careful surgical planning and precise technical execution. The use of microsurgical transfer for these defects allows considerable latitude for duplication of the missing complex three-dimensional anatomy and avoids sullying the adjacent facial soft tissues. Because of the adverse condition of the local tissues, the majority of these cases could not have been brought to a successful conclusion without the use of free tissue transfer, and this is particularly relevant in the cocaine-injured nose.
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ranking = 0.20676023839945
keywords = airway
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26/74. Rhinolithiasis as cause of oronasal fistula.

    Rhinolithiasis is a disease caused by deposition of organic and inorganic compounds in the nasal cavity, leading to unilateral nasal obstruction, fetid rhinorrhea, epistaxis, and it may cause complications. The authors present a case of rhinolithiasis with oronasal fistula and literature review.
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keywords = obstruction
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27/74. Acoustic rhinometry: should we be using it?

    PURPOSE OF THE review: The purpose of this review is to examine the role of acoustic rhinometry in clinical practice. Although acoustic rhinometry was first described for clinical use in 1989, it is not in common use today. Should we be using it? Yes. I think we should be using it more often. This review provides an update of the new standard for interpretation and expanded clinical uses. RECENT FINDINGS: The most significant advances in the past year in this area have been the publication of standards for its clinical use. In addition, the repertoire of clinical problems that can be analyzed objectively with acoustic rhinometry has expanded to include turbinoplasty, sleep disorders, more types of cosmetic/reconstructive procedures, sinus surgery, vasomotor rhinitis, maxillofacial expansion procedures, and aspirin and methacholine challenge. (Its ability for pediatric disorders, such as adenoidectomy, has been reaffirmed.) Some case examples are included to demonstrate the utility of acoustic rhinometry for 'mixed' pathology. SUMMARY: Acoustic rhinometry is a rapid, objective, painless, noninvasive technique for assessing nasal airway obstruction. Recently, standards have been developed that aid its expansion for clinical use. Expanded clinical applications include sleep disorders, cosmetic/reconstructive and maxillofacial disorders, sinus and turbinate procedures, and pediatrics. Acoustic rhinometry should be utilized to improve our ability to practice evidence-based medicine in rhinology.
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ranking = 3.0080876236344
keywords = airway obstruction, obstruction, airway
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28/74. Lobular capillary haemangioma of the middle turbinate.

    Lobular capillary haemangioma (LCH) is a benign, vascular lesion of unknown origin. It usually affects skin and mucous membranes of the oral cavity. It rarely occurs in the nose. Microtrauma and hormonal factors are considered in the aetiology. The most frequently seen symptoms of nasal LCH are epistaxis and nasal obstruction. LCH can be pedinculated or wide based. Its size ranges from several millimetres to centimetres. LCH cases secondary to postoperative use of nasal packs have been reported. Here we present an LCH which was located on the middle turbinate and occurred after the usage of nasal packing. It is known that the nose is a rare location for LCH but middle turbinate location has not been described so far in the literature. LCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of all endonasal masses with bleeding.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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29/74. Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease: involvement of eye, nose and trachea.

    Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare non-neoplastic histiocytic proliferative disorder characterized by painless lymphadenopathy. Extranodal lesions frequently occur in the head and neck regions. We report the clinical and histological features of extranodal RDD in a 43-year-old man with a previously unreported combination of multiple gross anterior epibulbar nodules in the right eye, submucosal masses of nasal septum and trachea, and no lymphadenopathy during the 12-year follow-up. The patient underwent ophthalmological, otolaryngological and systemic evaluation; gallium 67 scintigraphy; bronchoscopy; ophthalmic ultrasound; head and neck CT scan; biopsies of epibulbar, nasal and tracheal tissues; and septoplasty. Histological specimens showed lymphocytophagocytosis and positive immunoperoxidase staining for S100 protein in foamy histiocytes; both features were typical for RDD. No response to topical or systemic steroids or to radiation therapy was recorded. Removal of nasal septum masses resolved nasal obstruction. The diagnosis of RDD requires histological and, in challenging cases, immunohistological specimens and is difficult--especially with pure extranodal localizations as in our case. RDD should be suspected in cases of subconjunctival mass and/or submucosal nasal and tracheal swellings not responding to systemic steroids.
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ranking = 1
keywords = obstruction
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30/74. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis: an unusual entity producing complete lacrimal duct obstruction.

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis is an unusual fibrotic condition of unknown aetiology that tends to affect the upper respiratory tract. Twenty-one cases have been reported in the literature and only three have had ocular adnexal involvement. Despite characteristic histopathological and clinical findings, the diagnosis remains a challenge. Furthermore, its progressive nature with potential to invade adjacent structures and the lack of response to current treatment modalities make management difficult. We describe a case of sinonasal eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis that presented with bilateral nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
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ranking = 5
keywords = obstruction
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