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1/37. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: a case of a rare, but deadly disease.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the nasal cavity and sinuses that can spread to the orbits and cranium within days. Its presentation can be confused with those of sinusitis, viral infections, diabetic ketoacidosis, or carotid sinus thrombosis, and it is often missed at early presentation. survival is directly linked to early detection and treatment. We present a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis and discuss the literature on its early signs and symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment options.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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2/37. Mucor endophthalmitis.

    PURPOSE: To report on a case of type 2 diabetes, with eyelid gangrene and endophthalmitis as a presenting manifestation of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. RESULTS: CECT head showed proptosis, mucosal thickening in the ethmoid sinus and hypodense lesions in the frontal and occipital lobes. Vitreous tap showed right angle branched aseptate hyphae consistent with mucormycosis. CONCLUSIONS: A diabetic patient presenting with sudden loss of vision, eyelid gangrene and endophthalmitis, involvement by an angio-invasive fungus-like mucormycosis is an important consideration.
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keywords = diabetic
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3/37. Bilateral rhinocerebral phycomycosis.

    A 51-year-old diabetic woman developed bilateral rhinoorbitocerebral phycomycosis. Successful treatment was accomplished by correction of the ketoacidosis, surgical debridement, and amphotericin b therapy. Rhinoorbitocerebral phycomycosis is a fulminant and frequently fatal disease most often seen in debilitated hosts. This survival suggests that aggressive therapy is indicated in patients with extensive fungal involvement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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4/37. Case report. Fatal rhinocerebral zygomycosis due to rhizopus oryzae.

    A case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis due to rhizopus oryzae, arising after trauma in a 53-year-old diabetic man, is reported. diagnosis was based on histological and mycological examination. Fragments of the colonies were observed by scanning electron microscopy. This is the first case diagnosed in Tuscany.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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5/37. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in an 11-year-old boy.

    A patient with diabetic ketoacidosis admitted for treatment developed features characteristic of rhinocerebral mucormycosis, confirmed by histopathologic examination, is presented. The patient had been experiencing symptoms of diabetes for one month before presentation to the hospital in state of diabetic ketoacidosis. Within a few days of admission he developed mucormycosis of the nasal cavity and the orbit which extended to the brain very fast and resulted in death. High index of suspicion form the clinical presentation in an immunocompromised patient, especially, one with diabetic ketoacidosis, is suggested to effect early intervention.
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ranking = 3
keywords = diabetic
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6/37. Acute rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis.

    Report of the typical clinical course and pathological findings in acute rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis following diabetic coma. Invasion of orbital nerves by the fungus with neural and perineural changes may contribute to the neuroophthalmological symptoms in this disease besides the predilection for blood vessels with consequent thrombosis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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7/37. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: an unusual case presentation.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is a rapidly fatal fungal disease which involves the nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit and central nervous system. The fungal infection is usually secondary to immunosuppression, diabetic acidosis, or antibiotic, steroid or cytotoxic therapy. It can also occur in patients suffering from burns, malignancy and haematological disorders. Current treatment consists of correction of the underlying disorder, repeated debridement of the wound in combination with intravenous amphotericin b. This paper describes our experience with a case of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. This is an unusual case in which mucormycosis was seen in a young female where no underlying cause was found. She responded to surgical debridement in combination with intravenous amphotericin b.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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8/37. MR imaging in rhinocerebral and intracranial mucormycosis with CT and pathologic correlation.

    Three cases of mucormycosis, two in diabetics and one in an intravenous drug abuse patient, are presented. magnetic resonance imaging proved to be useful in all cases, as was computed tomography. In one case, extremely low signal was detected from the fungal mass. It is surmised that this appearance was a result of high concentrations of iron and manganese. The low-signal area simulated air in paranasal sinuses; however, CT displayed a mildly enhancing soft tissue mass and allowed the correct diagnosis to be made. In another patient, pontine infarction was demonstrated by MR. In the third case the MR findings of mucormycosis involving the basal ganglia are shown and correlated with CT. Subsequent imaging studies demonstrated reduction of the mass, corresponding to clinical improvement.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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9/37. Rhinoorbital mucormycosis secondary to rhizopus oryzae: a case report and literature review.

    mucormycosis is a form of fulminant invasive fungal infection of the sinonasal tract that often extends to the orbit, brain, palate, and skin. It is caused by members of the order mucorales, and it is considered to be the most fatal fungal infection known to man because it is rapidly disseminated by the blood vessels. It is most commonly associated with diabetic ketoacidosis, hematologic malignancies, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunosuppressive therapy. This rare opportunistic infection exists in many forms, the most common of which is rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Treatment includes aggressive surgical debridement of the necrotic tissue combined with systemic antifungal therapy. In this case report, we describe the successful management of rhinoorbital mucormycosis, a subtype of the rhinocerebral variety, secondary to rhizopus oryzae that developed in a patient with lymphoma. We review the diagnostic work-up and discuss the literature with respect to the presentation, pathophysiology, management, and outcome of the disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = diabetic
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10/37. mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics.

    mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis.
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ranking = 5
keywords = diabetic
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