Cases reported "Nystagmus, Pathologic"

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1/70. Acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in multiple sclerosis.

    Nystagmus seen only with convergence is unusual. We describe four cases of acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis. The nystagmus was horizontal and asymmetric in all patients. Eye movement recordings in one subject showed a conjugate rather than a convergent-divergent relationship of the phase of movement between the two eyes. All patients had evidence of optic neuropathy and cerebellar dysfunction. Occlusion of either eye during fixation of near targets led to divergent drift of the covered eye and a decrease in nystagmus. Intravenous scopolamine reduced nystagmus in one patient. Base-in prisms alleviated symptoms of oscillopsia at near and improving reading visual acuity. Convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus may be more common than currently appreciated, particularly among patients with multiple sclerosis.
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2/70. The incidence and waveform characteristics of periodic alternating nystagmus in congenital nystagmus.

    PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence and waveform characteristics of periodic alternating nystagmus, (PAN) in congenital nystagmus (CN). methods: In a prospective study, 18 patients with CN without associated sensory defects agreed to undergo eye movement documentation using binocular infrared oculography. Two of the 18 had a diagnosis of suspected PAN before entering the study. The patients sat in a dimly lit room and viewed an LED (4 min in diameter) located in the primary position, at a distance of 100 cm. During an 8-minute recording, patients were read a story of neutral interest to hold attention at a constant level. PAN was defined as a left-beating nystagmus, a transition phase, a right-beating nystagmus, and a final transition phase; the sequence was then repeated. RESULTS: Seven of the 18 patients had PAN (median cycle: 223 seconds, range 180-307 seconds). The periodicity of the cycles for each adult patient was regular, although the phases within a cycle were often asymmetric. Six of the seven patients had an anomalous head posture (AHP), and in five the AHP was in only one direction. Except for one patient, the PAN waveforms had an increasing slow-phase velocity in at least one phase of the cycle; in the other phase they were linear. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of PAN in CN is not as rare as previously thought and can be missed because of the long cycles and the use of only one AHP. The AHP was dependent on, and could be predicted from, the waveforms containing the longest foveation times. Although the waveforms and foveation times may differ among the phases of the PAN cycle, the periodicity of the cycle was usually regular and therefore predictable. Identification of PAN is essential in cases in which surgical treatment is considered for correction of AHPs.
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3/70. Periodic alternating nystagmus.

    Three patients with periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) are described in detail. Digital computer methods were used to quantify their disordered eye movement in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology. One of the patients was unusual in showing rebound nystagmus with fixation and PAN without fixation. Each patient had hyperactive vestibular responses and the phase and gain of the PAN cycles were altered in a predictable fashion by vestibular stimuli. It is postulated that PAN represents cyclical firing between reciprocally connected groups of inhibitory neurons within the vestibular and oculomotor nuclei. The cyclical firing is initiated by a critical imbalance of tonic input to either group of normally functioning neurons.
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4/70. Central nystagmus induced by deep-brain stimulation for epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: The goal of the present study was to describe the localization of central nystagmus induced as a side effect of electrical deep-brain stimulation for epilepsy. methods: Bilateral deep-brain stimulating electrodes were inserted in the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus to control seizures in a patient with intractable epilepsy. RESULTS: Cathodal high-frequency stimulation through the deepest contact of each electrode elicited cycles of slow ipsiversive conjugate eye deviations, each followed by rapid contralateral jerks. The involved electrode contacts were situated at the mesodiencephalic junction just inferior to the centromedian nucleus of the thalamus and rostral to the superior colliculus. Right-sided stimulation evoked left beating nystagmus and left-sided stimulation evoked right beating nystagmus. Stimulation through other electrode contacts did not induce nystagmus. electronystagmography showed the nystagmus to have constant velocity slow phases. CONCLUSIONS: A central nystagmogenic area exists in humans that appears to be homologous to the nucleus of the optic tract, a region described in nonhuman primates to play a role in the generation of optokinetic nystagmus.
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5/70. Spontaneous reversal of nystagmus in the dark.

    AIM: To report five children with horizontal jerk nystagmus in whom eye movement recordings in the dark revealed a spontaneous reversal in the direction of the nystagmus beat. Three patients were blind in one eye and were diagnosed as having a manifest latent nystagmus (MLN), and two patients had strabismus and congenital nystagmus (CN). methods: eye movements were recorded using DC electro-oculography with simultaneous video recording, including infrared recording in total darkness. RESULTS: Four patients had decelerating velocity slow phase jerk nystagmus when recorded under natural lighting conditions; the fifth case had accelerating velocity and linear slow phase jerk nystagmus. Under absolute darkness, nystagmus reversed in direction of beat with a mixture of linear and decelerating velocity slow phase waveforms. One child with unilateral anophthalmos could wilfully reverse the beat direction of his nystagmus by trying to look with his blind eye in the light and dark. CONCLUSIONS: These observations support the theory that LN/MLN beat direction is determined by the "presumed" viewing eye and may be consciously controlled. The spontaneous reversal of beat direction in the dark suggests eye dominance is predetermined. Eye movement recordings identified mixed nystagmus waveforms indicating that CN (accelerating velocity slow phases) and LN/MLN (linear/decelerating velocity slow phases) coexist in these subjects.
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6/70. Tullio phenomenon with dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal.

    HYPOTHESIS: The goal of the investigation was to determine if vector analysis of nystagmus in a patient with the Tullio phenomenon could determine the source of the nystagmus. BACKGROUND: The Tullio phenomenon consists of the combination of vertigo and abnormal eye and/or head movements provoked by sound. Dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal can be found in certain patients with the Tullio phenomenon. methods: The patient was tested with pure tones ranging from 250 to 3,000 Hz at 95dB HL. The time course of the three-dimensional vector of eye movement, including torsion and vertical and horizontal displacement angles was determined by individual stop-frame analysis of digitized video. RESULTS: Torsion amplitude varied from 1 to 7 degrees; vertical amplitude varied from 1 to 5 degrees; and horizontal amplitude varied less than 1.5 degrees. The maximal response occurred on stimulation of the right ear with a 1,250-Hz 95-dB HL tone. This elicited a reliable counterclockwise torsional and down-beating fast phase nystagmus as seen from the examiner's point of view. Comparison of the nystagmus with known canal vectors identified the right superior semicircular canal as the source of stimulation. High-resolution computed tomography scan of the temporal bone showed a definite right superior canal dehiscence. CONCLUSION: The origin of nystagmus from the Tullio phenomenon can be identified by calculating the three-dimensional vector of the observed nystagmus. We show that vector analysis of the observed eye movement can be used to infer the source of nystagmus in these patients. The development of real-time, three-dimensional vector analysis of nystagmus is desirable.
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7/70. Paroxysmal alternating skew deviation and nystagmus after partial destruction of the uvula.

    A patient with suspected brain stem glioma involving the area of the left vestibular nuclei and cerebellar peduncle, developed paroxysmal alternating skew deviation and direction changing nystagmus after biopsy of the inferior cerebellar vermis resulting in destruction of the uvula. Between attacks she had right over left skew deviation with asymptomatic right beating horizontal nystagmus. Slow phases of the resting nystagmus showed increasing velocity, similar to congenital nystagmus. At intervals of 40-50 seconds, paroxysmal reversal of her skew deviation occurred, accompanied by violent left beating horizontal torsional nystagmus lasting 10-12 seconds and causing severe oscillopsia. It is proposed that this complex paroxysmal eye movement disorder results from (1) a lesion in the left vestibular nuclei causing right over left skew and right beating resting nystagmus and (2) a disruption of cerebellar inhibition of vestibular nuclei, causing alternating activity in the vestibular system with intermittent reversal of the skew deviation and paroxysmal nystagmus towards the side of the lesion.
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8/70. Two types of foveation strategy in 'latent' nystagmus: fixation, visual acuity and stability.

    The authors studied the foveation dynamics of two individuals with latent/manifest latent nystagmus (LMLN) to test the hypothesis that oscillopsia suppression and good visual acuity require periods of accurate target foveation at low slip velocities. Congenital nystagmus (CN) waveforms contain post-saccadic foveation periods; the LMLN waveform does not and yet allows for both oscillopsia suppression and good acuity. During fixation with both eyes open, there were intervals when the eyes were still and correctly aligned; at other times, there was esotropia and nystagmus with slow-phase velocities less than /- 4 deg/sec and each fast phase pointed the fovea of the fixating eye at the target. However, cover of either eye produced LN and a different strategy was employed: the fast phases carried the fixating eye past the target and the fovea subsequently reacquired it during the slowest parts of the slow phases. The authors confirmed this in both subjects, whose high acuities were made possible by foveation occuring during the low-velocity portions of their slow phases. A nystagmus foveation function (NFF), originally developed for CN, was calculated for both LN and MLN intervals of fixation and it was found to track visual acuity less accurately for individuals with high acuity. Individuals with LMLN exhibit two different foveation strategies: during low-amplitude LMLN, the target is foveated immediately after the fast phases; and during high-amplitude LMLN, target foveation occurs towards the end of the slow phases. Therefore, the saccadic system can be used to create retinal error rather than eliminate it if this strategy is beneficial. Individuals with LMLN foveated targets with the same eye-position and -velocity accuracy as those with CN and the NFF provides a rough estimate of acuity in both. Current calibration methods for both infrared and search-coil techniques need to be altered for subjects with LMLN.
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9/70. Convergence retraction nystagmus: a disorder of vergence?

    The pathological mechanism of convergence retraction nystagmus (CRN) is not known. To determine whether CRN is a disorder of vergence or of the saccadic system, the scleral search coil technique was used to record binocularly the three-dimensional components of CRN in a patient with a left mesencephalic infarction involving the nucleus of the posterior commissure and the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle. CRN had disconjugate horizontal and torsional components. The horizontal amplitude/velocity relationship of CRN aligned with the main sequence of vergence responses of normal control subjects but not with that of saccades. Vergence responses of the right eye and left eye were not asynchronous. The slow phases of CRN showed an exponential decay with a time constant of 70 milliseconds. Thus, CRN is probably a disorder of vergence rather than of opposing adducting saccades.
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10/70. Epileptic nystagmus: a case study video-EEG correlation.

    Epileptic nystagmus (EN) is an uncommon phenomenon characterized by repetitive and rapid saccades, in association with epileptic discharges. We present a critical video-EEG recording in a patient with occipital seizures that appeared clinically as EN. The subject, male, 70 years-old, was examined because of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, preceded by left cephalic version. These were controlled using i.v. PHT, but partial seizures persisted, which we recorded using video-EEG. Clinically, we observed episodes of left conjugate deviation of the eyes, accompanied by horizontal nystagmoid movements, with a rapid leftward component and visual hallucinations. The patient did not lose consciousness. Ictal EEG: spike rhythm in the posterior right occipito-temporal region extending to adjacent and contralateral regions, followed by post-discharge of slow waves. The video-EEG was interpreted as partial oculo-clonic status epilepticus of right temporo-occipital origin. Cranial MRI: old, bilateral hemorrhaging occipital contusions associated with previous cranial injury. The picture persisted for two days, and disappeared with administration of CBZ 600 mg/d. Our patient's nystagmus seemed to be related to the critical activity recorded in the right occipito-temporal region. The co-existence of visual hallucinations and the video-EEG correlation support this possibility. This phenomenon is probably due to epileptic activation of the cortical center of saccadic movements, with a rapid phase of nystagmus, contralateral to the focus, and a slow ipsilateral phase in association with a defect in the gaze-fixing system ("leaky neural integrator") [published with videosequences].
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