Cases reported "Nystagmus, Pathologic"

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11/136. Improvement of acquired pendular nystagmus by gabapentin: case report.

    Acquired Pendular Nystagmus (APN) may cause distressing visual symptoms in patients who are already suffering a severe general disease. Averbuch-Heller et al. conducted the first double-blind controlled study on treatment for APN. They showed that gabapentin substantially reduces pendular nystagmus and significantly increases visual acuity in the majority of patients. We present a patient with APN due to multiple sclerosis who suffered severe oscillopsy and reduction of visual acuity and who substantially benefited from a trial treatment with this agent.
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12/136. Maximal subtotal extirpation of the horizontal rectus extraocular muscles for the treatment of nystagmus with no null point. A report of four successful human cases.

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual and restoration of normal appearance results of maximal excision of the horizontal rectus muscles in nystagmus patients. SETTING: Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, ethiopia and the Sinskey Eye Institute, Santa Monica, california. methods: The medial and lateral rectus muscles were extirpated as far back as possible with an enucleation snare in four patients with horizontal nystagmus. A complete eye examination was performed pre- and postoperatively. Using a camcorder, ocular movements were recorded before surgery, and at postop; days 1 and 40, and months 1, 3 and 10. RESULTS: All four patients had a marked reduction in both abnormal and normal horizontal eye movement, and improvement in objective visual acuity. Postoperative residual intermittent fine horizontal movement was recorded in the left eye in a 6 year old and in both eyes of a 41 year old patient. A residual rotary component was recorded in a 15 year-old patient. The 6 and 9 year-old patients each developed a moderate exotropia. The 15 and 41 year-old patients maintained binocular fusion with some residual ability to converge. Vision increased subjectively in all cases. CONCLUSION: Subtotal myectomy of the horizontal muscles in horizontal nystagmus with no null point was very effective in improving and/or eliminating horizontal eye movement. Restoration of normal or near normal appearance and improvement in visual acuity occurred in all cases. None of the patients complained of their loss of horizontal gaze and eye movement. More complete myectomy of the muscles should produce total elimination of both normal and abnormal horizontal eye movement including nystagmus.
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13/136. Caloric-eye tracking pattern test: I. Visual suppression and the possibility of simplified differential diagnosis between peripheral and central vertigo.

    During the examination of patients who complain of vertigo or who have equilibrium disorders, it is often difficult to determine the etiology of the disorders, that is, to determine whether it is dependent on a peripheral or central vestibular disorder. To attempt to guess the etiology in these cases, we devised a new method: the caloric eye-tracking pattern test. In normal subjects and in patients with peripheral disorders, as is well known, caloric nystagmus has little influence on the eye-tracking pattern. In contrast, in patients with central vestibular disorders, caloric nystagmus evoked abnormalities on the eye-tracking pattern, either superimposed or saccades, in spite of the fact that the eye-tracking pattern before the caloric stimulation is normal. These findings result from the visual suppression mechanism to the vestibular nystagmus. We can say that the visual suppression to the vestibular nystagmus is evoked more strongly bu pursuing a moving visual stimulus than by gazing at a stationary target. These results are interesting, not only form the physiological view point, but also from the clinical view point. There is a possibility of the differential diagnosis between peripheral and central vertigo.
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14/136. Behr's syndrome and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.

    We examined three patients from two families of Jewish-Iraqi origin who had progressive reduction of visual acuity and childhood onset of bilateral optic nerve atrophy without additional retinal abnormalities. They had neurologic symptoms compatible with Behr's syndrome. Neurologic signs included increased tendon reflexes, a positive Babinski sign, progressive spastic paraplegia, dysarthria, head nodding, and horizontal nystagmus. Neurologic involvement varied between affected siblings. The patients excreted excessive amounts of 3-methylglutaconic acid and 3-methylglutaric acid in their urine. We compared the characteristic ophthalmic features and the spectrum of neurologic signs encountered in this recently delineated autosomal recessive clinical entity with those of previously described entities associated with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. patients with early-onset optic atrophy should be examined for neurologic signs and screened for organic aciduria. A detailed ophthalmic examination is important in patients with neurologic abnormalities compatible with Behr's syndrome.
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15/136. Effectiveness of botulinum toxin administered to abolish acquired nystagmus.

    We injected botulinum toxin into the horizontal rectus muscles of the right eyes of 2 patients who had acquired pendular nystagmus with horizontal, vertical, and torsional components. This treatment successfully abolished the horizontal component of the nystagmus in the injected eye in both patients for approximately 2 months. Both patients showed a small but measurable improvement of vision in the injected eye that may have been limited by coexistent disease of the visual pathways. The vertical and torsional components of the nystagmus persisted in both patients. In 1 patient, the horizontal component of nystagmus in the noninjected eye increased; we ascribe this finding to plastic-adaptive changes in response to paresis caused by the botulinum toxin. Such plastic-adaptive changes and direct side effects of the injections--such as diplopia and ptosis--may limit the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of acquired nystagmus. Neither patient elected to repeat the botulinum treatment.
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16/136. Eight eye muscle surgical treatment in a patient with acquired nystagmus and strabismus: a case report.

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the clinical benefits and electrophysiological changes after extraocular muscle surgery for acquired nystagmus and strabismus in an adult patient. a 41-year-old Caucasian female suffered from oscillopsia, bilateral cranial nerve IV palsies, and vertical nystagmus. Medical therapy was ineffective. She underwent bilateral, eight muscle surgical procedure which included: tenectomies of the superior oblique OU, myectomies of the inferior oblique OU, recessions of the medial rectus muscles OU (with OD on a post-operatively adjustable suture), and differential recessions of the superior rectus muscles OU. This provided marked improvement in her symptoms. These results suggest that surgery for acquired nystagmus can affect an improvement in the characteristics of the nystagmus that result in visual complaints. Combining "nystagmus surgery" plus strabismus surgery may be a viable option in some adult patients with acquired nystagmus who are unresponsive to medical therapy.
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17/136. Dissociation of visual and haptic vertical in two patients with vestibular nuclear lesions.

    The somatosensory (haptic) vertical (HV) and visual vertical (VV) were assessed in two patients with vestibular nuclear lesions. Patient 1 had paroxysmal nystagmus, and was tested "on" and "off." The HV was normal "on" and "off" but the VV was severely tilted during vestibular paroxysms. Patient 2, with a brainstem stroke, was tested at months 1 and 6. The VV was severely tilted on both occasions (>12 degrees) but the HV was marginally tilted (4 degrees) in the acute stage only. These VV-HV dissociations suggest that vestibular nuclear lesions influence gravity perception mostly via ocular torsional effects rather than by disrupting a single, internal representation of verticality.
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18/136. Caloric eye-tracking pattern test: visual suppression and the possibility of simplified differential diagnosis between peripheral and central vertigo.

    During the examination of patients who complain of vertigo or who have equilibrium disorders, often identifying the etiology of the disorders is difficult (i.e., determining whether it is dependent on a peripheral or a central vestibular disorder). To attempt to determine the etiology in these cases, we devised a new method: the caloric eye-tracking pattern test. In normal subjects and in patients with peripheral disorders, as is well-known, caloric nystagmus has little influence on the eye-tracking pattern. In contrast, in patients with central vestibular disorders, caloric nystagmus evoked abnormalities in the eye-tracking pattern, either superimposed or as saccades, despite the fact that the eye-tracking pattern before caloric stimulation was normal. These findings result from the visual suppression mechanism to vestibular nystagmus. We can conclude that the visual suppression to vestibular nystagmus is evoked more strongly by pursuing a moving visual stimulus than by gazing at a stationary target. These results are interesting, not only from the physiological viewpoint but from the clinical viewpoint. The differential diagnosis should include both peripheral and central vertigo.
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ranking = 2.3333333333333
keywords = visual
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19/136. Epileptic nystagmus in a patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus.

    Epileptic nystagmus (EN) is a rare form of rhythmic eye oscillations occurring during seizure activity. Not only convulsive states, but also nonconvulsive status may represent with EN and this phenomenon may be the only motor manifestation of seizure activity. Epileptic activation of a cortical saccade region may be distinguished from activation of a cortical pursuit region clinically as activation of pursuit regions results in nystagmus slow phases that bring the eyes across the midline. Horizontal EN results most commonly from seizure activity involving the occipital cortex. In this report, horizontal EN in a patient with nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is described with clinical, radiological and electrophysiological findings that occur probably due to posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome.
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keywords = cortex
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20/136. Temporal influences on retinal correspondence: ocular motor findings in paradoxical spatial projection.

    BACKGROUND: Paradoxical diplopia is a condition in which objective eye position contradicts subjective localization in visual space. The term "paradoxical" is usually reserved for instances when known sensory adaptations cannot explain the contradiction. The development of this condition begins with infantile or childhood strabismus, followed by the development of a common sensory adaptation, anomalous retinal correspondence (ARC). ARC causes a reduction in the subjective angle of strabismus compared with the objective angle, and in its completed form the subjective angle decreases to zero. There is no "adaptive" mechanism that would increase the subjective angle such that it would be greater than the objective. In cases of treatment by corrective surgery, the anatomically based motor correction leads to a contradiction between eye position and binocular perception. In this event, the objective angle is less than the subjective, and the result is a paradoxical perception. We encountered a 25-year-old woman who experiences paradoxical localization on cover testing in the absence of a manifest strabismus and with no previous surgical intervention. methods: Using a magnetic search coil technique, we evaluated eye movements during fixation, smooth pursuit, saccades, and during cover test conditions to determine how these eye movements correlated to the subjective perception in space. RESULTS: Although smooth pursuit and saccades were normal, there were two elements during cover test that could explain the paradoxical projection. One was the phenomenon that during the cover test the paradoxical projection appeared only when the eye was covered for >4 s. The second was that there was a regression from the full exophoria position toward the midline while the eye was under cover that correlated with a possible paradoxical projection situation. DISCUSSION: ARC, usually associated with a beneficial sensorimotor adaptation, can express itself as a detrimental sensorimotor manifestation. Paradoxical perception also can exist without previous surgical intervention and without the influence of prisms and instrumentation such as the synoptophore. Further studies are indicated to explore the sensorimotor feedback mechanism between eye position and spatial perception.
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