Cases reported "Obesity"

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1/87. latex anaphylaxis causing heart block: role of ranitidine.

    PURPOSE: Treatment with H2 receptor antagonists may cause the heart to be more susceptible to atrioventricular conduction delay when exposed to an overwhelming insult by histamine released during an anaphylactic reaction. We present the case of a woman, pretreated with ranitidine, who developed 3:1 heart block secondary to latex anaphylaxis. We propose that H2 antagonist premedication alone in patients susceptible to anaphylaxis increases their risk of heart block. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 38 yr old obese woman with cervical cancer presented for a radical hysterectomy. Systems review yielded a history of sleep apnea, orthopnea, gastroesophageal reflux, and sciatica. Medications included preoperative ranitidine, 150 mg. There was no history of atopy or allergy. Following general anesthesia induction, at the onset of the surgical procedure the patient developed a severe anaphylactic reaction which was heralded by the onset of 3:1 heart block, with decreases in SpO2, P(ET)CO2 and a decrease in systolic blood pressure to 45 mmHg. This was diagnosed as a possible latex reaction and treated using epinephrine boluses and infusion, fluids, 50 mg diphenhydramine, 50 mg ranitidine and 100 mg hydrocortisone. Following a 48 hr stay in the ICU the patient made an uneventful recovery. Allergy testing with intradermal latex injection and increased plasma tryptase levels confirmed a latex anaphylaxis. CONCLUSION: The use of H2 antagonists alone as a prophylaxis for gastroesophageal reflux may increase the risk of heart block in patients who develop anaphylaxis.
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2/87. Unilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia as an unusual cause of Cushing's syndrome--a case study.

    To appraise clinicians of the problems that may be encountered in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome, we present a case report of a 20-year old female, who was admitted with a recently developed central obesity, ammenorrhea hirsuitism, proximal myopathy and depression. She was found to have multiple striae, thin skin, elevated blood pressure glycosuria and hyperglycaemia. Morning and mid-night plasma cortisol concentrations revealed elevated levels, with a loss of diurnal variation. There was a failure of the normal suppressibility of cortisol secretion by low doses of dexamethasone, while a significant suppression of plasma cortisol concentration was observed with high doses of dexamethasone. There were no significant abnormalities observed in the pituitary fossa on skull radiograph and on the cranial computerised tomographic scan. After a period of stabilisation, she had a bilateral adrenalectomy done, with a histopathological finding of a left adrenal macronodular hyperplasia, while the right adrenal gland was small and friable. There was an uneventful post-operative period, with a gradual return to normality of most of the presenting complaints. The hyperglycaemia and hypertension got controlled without medications, while her menstrual cycles resumed within three months of bilateral adrenalectomy. This case report illustrates that an adrenal-dependent Cushing's syndrome may mimic a pituitary-dependent one, especially as regards the suppressibility of plasma cortisol secretion by high doses of dexamethasone.
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3/87. airway obstruction due to late-onset angioneurotic edema from angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition.

    PURPOSE: Angioneurotic edema is a well-documented complication of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI). We report a case of acute airway obstruction from a late-onset, probable ACEI-related angioneurotic edema and its subsequent management. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 48-yr-old obese man presented for transurethral resection of a bladder tumour (TURBT). His past medical history included hypertension controlled with hydrochlorothiazide and quinapril which had been started 13 mo earlier. Previous surgery was uncomplicated. midazolam was used for premedication and for intraoperative sedation together with fentanyl and propofol. After uneventful spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine, operation and recovery, he was transferred to the floor. Five hours later he developed severe edema of his face, tongue and neck, with drooling, that progressed into airway obstruction and respiratory arrest. ventilation was restored via immediate cricothyroidotomy, and a subsequent tracheotomy was completed uneventfully in the operating room. His serum C1 esterase inhibitor levels at 1, 5 and 23 days later were normal. The angioneurotic edema was attributed to the ACEI treatment. The edema resolved after 48 hr, and further follow-up was unremarkable. CONCLUSION: This observation is consistent with other reports that angioneurotic edema from ACEI can occur many months after the initiation of treatment. This can involve the airway and may produce life-threatening respiratory compromise. physicians should be aware of this association and the possible need for immediate surgical intervention for the establishment of an airway in case of worsening edema or respiratory arrest.
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4/87. Bilateral giant adrenal myelolipoma and polycystic ovarian disease.

    We report a case of a nonfunctioning, synchronous, bilateral, very large adrenal myelolipoma in an obese woman. She had diabetes mellitus and oligomenorrhea due to polycystic ovarian disease, and for that, she was taking progesterone medication for over 12 years. The principal clinical findings, the etiology and pathogenesis, the diagnostic-tools including US-guided fine-needle biopsy to preoperative differential diagnosis, are discussed. copyright copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel
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5/87. pancreatitis following intestinal bypass for obesity.

    Three out of 24 patients undergoing intestinal bypass in the treatment of morbid obesity have developed acute pancreatitis in the postoperative period. All three had undergone end-to-end jejunoileal bypass. This serious postoperative complication has been infrequently recorded. Its significance and possible aetiological factors are discussed.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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6/87. Intraoperative SSEP detection of ulnar nerve compression or ischemia in an obese patient: a unique complication associated with a specialized spinal retraction system.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of peripheral nerve compression caused by a specialized spinal retraction system, the Thompson-Farley retractor system, that most likely would not have been detected without intraoperative monitoring of the ulnar nerve. DESIGN: Bilateral median and peroneal nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were monitored continuously during a C5 corpectomy, as was core body temperature. RESULTS: Within minutes after cervical soft-tissue retraction, the left ulnar nerve SSEP began to decline in amplitude. peroneal nerve SSEPs were normal throughout the surgery; core body temperature remained at 36 degrees /- 0.2 degrees C. After much effort to reposition the patient, the SSEPs returned to baseline and the Thompson-Farley system was replaced by a self-retracting system. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of peripheral nerve compression caused by the Thompson-Farley retractor system. Even with careful positioning on the operating table, obese patients may be particularly at risk for upper arm compression. Continuous monitoring of SSEPs is suggested to prevent postoperative morbidity.
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7/87. liver failure with steatonecrosis after jejunoileal bypass: recovery with parenteral nutriton and reanastomosis.

    Two women, aged 41 and 51 years, developed jaundice, encephalopathy, and hypoprothrombinemia during rapid weight loss four and 12 months after jejunoileal bypass for refractory obesity. Both were treated for liver failure and received a prolonged course of nutrition parenterally and orally. Serial liver biopsy specimens demonstrated extensive alcoholic-like hepatitis and cirrhosis that improved with nutritional repletion and reanastomosis. Postoperative biopsy specimens later demonstrated minimal portal fibrosis in one patient and inactive mild cirrhosis in the other. Although previous reports indicate that patients usually die when they develop liver failure of this severity after jejunoileal bypass, prolonged intensive nutritional repletion was associated with sufficient clinical and histologic improvement in these two patients so that intestinal reanastomosis could be performed safely.
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ranking = 1
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8/87. Continuous spinal anaesthesia/analgesia for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and post-operative pain management.

    The intra-operative management of two patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular pathology, who underwent peripheral reconstructive vascular surgery under continuous spinal anaesthesia, is described. Furthermore, continuous intrathecal analgesia was also continued in the post-operative period and provided effective pain relief that was reflected by the favourable surgical outcome.
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ranking = 6
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9/87. New multilobe "accordion" flaps for three-dimensional reconstruction of wide, full-thickness defects in the oral floor.

    When reconstructing a wide, full-thickness intraoral defect, the following principles are necessary for active food transport and improved swallowing and speech. First, the flap should touch the palate and obliterate the oral cavity. Second, jaw or flap excursion should not be hindered by tethering of the flap in the neck. And third, all surfaces of the tongue and oral floor, and the dead space of the floor should be reconstructed. To accomplish these goals, two new designs, similar to an accordion, using an anterolateral thigh flap and a deep inferior epigastric perforator flap have been developed. The outlines of multilobe flaps create an accordion-type structure of the tongue and oral floor complex. The advantages of the new designs using anterior thigh or deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps are follows: First, three-dimensional intraoral reconstitution allows maximal movement postoperatively of the reconstructed tongue. Second, the donor sites are so far from the tongue that simultaneous flap elevation is possible for tumor resectioning. Third, even in obese patients, totally or partially thin flaps are available. And fourth, in most patients the donor defects can be closed directly.
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10/87. Postoperative ventilatory failure in an obese, myopathic woman with periodic somnolence: A case report.

    An obese woman with periodic sommolence developed postoperative ventilatory problems following an uncomplicated cholecystectomy. A severe myopathic process involving the respiratory muscles was found at necropsy. A brother, who died a week later, had myotonic dystrophy.
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keywords = operative
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