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21/388. Neonatal periventricular leukomalacia preceded by fetal periventricular echodensity.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this prospective study is to verify whether fetal periventricular echodensity (PVE) precedes neonatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). methods: Fetal brains were studied with transvaginal scan in 63 high-risk fetuses from 17 to 32 weeks of pregnancy, PVE echogenicity was quantified with ultrasonic histogram, and neonatal brains and clinical courses were studied after birth. RESULTS: No fetal cystic PVL was found, instead, fetal PVE was detected in 42 fetuses. The quantified echogenicity value was higher in PVE than in normal brain. Four cases developed neonatal PVL among 28 preterm and 1 among 14 term births. Neonatal PVL developed in the 23 cases of persistent fetal PVE, whereas no neonatal PVL was found when fetal PVE was negative or disappeared. Cord compression signs were common in PVL cases. CONCLUSION: Neonatal PVL was preceded by antepartum persistent fetal PVE in the present study. ( info)

22/388. Fetal and neonatal arrhythmia in one of the twins--a case history.

    There are a lot of publications about fetal arrhythmia in singletons, but up to now there are no published data about fetal arrhythmia in multiple pregnancies. In the present study a case history of fetal and neonatal arrhythmia in one of twins from two mothers treated with betamimetic agents due to imminent preterm labor is reported and discussed. A first case with fetal bradycardia due to complete A-V block had congenital cordis abnormalities (VSD and PFO). The second case with prenatal detected extrasystoles had normal heart anatomy. digoxin was administered to the mother, in the aim to treat fetal arrhythmia without success, because the baby had postnatal bradycardia. After hospitalisation in cardiology Department the described cases were successfully treated. In both cases the second twins were without neonatal arrhythmia and with no structural heart abnormalities. We summarise that in situation of detection fetal arrhythmia the complexity of the problems experienced may warrant early referral to a tertiary centre where the overall management of the mother, fetus and neonate, may be undertaken. ( info)

23/388. Conservative management of triplet pregnancy after delivery of one foetus.

    This paper intends to demonstrate that the conservative management of triplet pregnancy after delivery of one foetus is a feasible and reasonable approach. Three cases of triplet pregnancy with successful conservative management after miscarriage of one foetus, are presented and compared with cases in the literature. The route of delivery, as well as the role of tocolysis, cerclage, prophylactic antibiotic therapy and corticosteroids are discussed. Guidelines for conservative treatment are proposed. The deliveries of our three pregnancies were delayed by 63, 44 and 22 days respectively. Foetal and neonatal evolution are normal in five of the remaining foetuses. Only one intrauterine death is observed. No maternal complications with sequelae are reported. After abortion of the first triplet, contractions often persist and the birth of the two remaining foetuses may be unavoidable. Nevertheless, in our experience, confirmed by some reports in the literature, prolongation of the pregnancy after expulsion of the first foetus is possible. It can be achieved by cervical cerclage associated with tocolytic and antibiotic therapy. This management is not associated with significantly increased foetal-maternal morbidity. ( info)

24/388. Complications of triple pregnancy following intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a case report.

    A case is presented of pregnancy and delivery of triplets following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) therapy. Although the outcome was satisfactory, with the birth of normal children free from any malformation, most of the obstetric and particularly the neonatal complications that can be associated with this therapy are illustrated in this case. In addition, from point of view of medical costs, concerns are raised about the current policy of multiple embryo transfer which is directly responsible for the high rate of multiple gestations observed in the IVF/ICSI programme. The authors consequently recommend a policy of transferring not more than two embryos per treatment cycle. ( info)

25/388. Anaphylactic shock in response to wasp sting in pregnancy.

    A case is described of stage 3 anaphylactic reaction in response to wasp sting in a woman in 27th week of gestation, followed by premature delivery in 35th week of gestation as the result of postanaphylactic reaction. ( info)

26/388. Delayed delivery of second twin after chorioamnionitis and abortion of first twin at 21 weeks gestation.

    Delayed delivery is a relatively new term used to describe the delivery of one fetus after premature delivery of the first fetus. We describe a case where we used tocolysis and antibiotics to prolong a twin pregnancy for 35 days with excellent fetal outcome, after chorioamnionitis had caused the abortion of the first twin at 21 weeks gestation. ( info)

27/388. pregnancy in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis: report of five cases in three women.

    Five cases of pregnancy occurring in three women with previously diagnosed Wegener's granulomatosis are described. The disease was diffuse in one case and localised in the other. Initial treatment consisted of a combination of corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide in two women, and methotrexate in one. Four pregnancies ended in live births despite pre-eclampsia in two cases. One therapeutic abortion was induced because of encephalocele. Comparable reported cases were reviewed to examine the implications of immunosuppressive treatment on the fetus. A relapse occurred during pregnancy in 40% of the cases, but in 25% if only pregnancies beginning during inactive disease were taken into account. No other indicator for maternal and fetal outcome was obvious. pregnancy should be planned after complete disappearance of disease activity. In the case of a relapse a combination of immunosuppressive drugs and corticosteroids should be chosen rather than corticosteroids alone because the outcome of pregnancy is poor in cases of undertreatment. Prematurity remains common. ( info)

28/388. Three-week delayed delivery in a triplet pregnancy at full dilatation with aggressive tocolysis.

    We describe our aggressive management of a woman with a triplet pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilization who presented at 22 weeks' gestation in labor with full cervical dilation. Successful multiagent tocolysis and delayed delivery of the two remaining fetuses after delivery of the presenting fetus led to an improved outcome for all three babies. ( info)

29/388. No evidence of increase in birth defects and health problems among children born to Persian gulf war veterans in mississippi.

    The Department of veterans' Affairs, Jackson, mississippi, and the mississippi State Department of health conducted a collaborative investigation of an apparent increase in the numbers of birth defects and other health problems among children born to veterans of two mississippi National Guard units who had served in the Persian gulf war. The medical records of all children conceived by and born to veterans of the two units after deployment were reviewed; observed numbers of birth defects and other health problems were compared with expected numbers using rates from birth defect surveillance systems and previous surveys. The total number of all types of birth defects was not greater than expected, but whether the number of specific birth defects was greater than expected could not be determined. The frequency of premature birth, low birth weight, and other health problems appeared similar to that in the general population. ( info)

30/388. Severe oligohydramnios induced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide.

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors might have fewer adverse fetal effects than conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that inhibit both isoforms of the enzyme. Although cyclooxygenase-2 is expressed in fetal kidneys, there are no reports of adverse effects in human pregnancy. CASE: A 27-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 0, with a twin pregnancy at 24 weeks' gestation had placement of a cervical cerclage. Nimesulide was prescribed for postoperative preterm labor prophylaxis. Three weeks later, severe oligohydramnios was identified in both sacs, despite normal growth, renal anatomy, and umbilical artery and renal artery Doppler flow velocimetry. After stopping the drug, amniotic fluid volumes returned to normal over 2 weeks. There were no adverse neonatal renal effects. CONCLUSION: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition might cause severe oligohydramnios. If it is used, we advise close fetal surveillance. ( info)
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