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31/388. Transient renal tubular acidosis in pregnancy.

    Renal tubular acidosis in pregnancy is a very rare disorder. Most cases are either inherited or secondary to maternal disease or ingestion of toxic chemicals. We report a 22-year-old woman, previously healthy, who presented at 27 weeks of gestation with preterm labor. Investigation revealed renal tubular acidosis with no obvious etiology. Labor was stopped with various tocolytic drugs and her electrolyte imbalance was corrected. She was delivered at 36 weeks, by cesarean for a nonreassuring fetal heart tracing, of an appropriate-for-gestational-age infant weighing 2905 g. Evaluation 3 and 6 months postpartum revealed gradual, but complete resolution of the acidosis and electrolyte abnormality. The infant is now 7 months old, is growing normally with normal electrolytes, and with no evidence of acidosis. ( info)

32/388. Aplastic anaemia during pregnancy: variable clinical course and outcome.

    Aplastic anaemia occurring during pregnancy is a rare event and is associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. prognosis is poorer when aplastic anaemia develops during pregnancy and many such patients have an unsuccessful pregnancy outcome. We report two cases of aplastic anaemia associated with pregnancy. Both the patients had very different antenatal course and outcome. Their etiopathogenesis and management is discussed. ( info)

33/388. cardiopulmonary bypass support for emergency cesarean delivery in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Cesarean delivery in a patient with pulmonary hypertension poses significant risks, particularly if the maternal status is decompensating. We present the first report of emergency use of cardiopulmonary bypass for cesarean delivery in a patient whose status was deteriorating. ( info)

34/388. Acute fatty liver of pregnancy showing microbial infection in the liver.

    A 24-year-old, nulliparous woman in her 30th week of pregnancy was admitted due to threatened premature delivery. Ritodrin chloride relieved the premature contraction of the uterus but jaundice and drowsiness appeared 7 weeks later. Laboratory data revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) with intrahepatic cholestasis, and ultrasound examination showed fatty liver. The patient was diagnosed with acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). Emergency delivery by Caesarean section was performed at 37 weeks of pregnancy and the liver function and DIC improved immediately. Liver biopsy 13 days after delivery showed nuclear swelling and cytoplasmic ballooning with mild fatty deposition. These findings were relatively compatible with acute AFLP. Higher magnification and electron microscopy revealed intracytoplasmic bacteria and fungus in the residual stage. The bacterial infection could be considered related to AFLP. ( info)

35/388. Delayed interval delivery military style.

    INTRODUCTION: Intentionally delaying the delivery of a second twin from a previable state to a gestational age when survival is possible is a heroic measure whose outcome is unpredictable. We report the case of delayed interval delivery in a patient transported via air evacuation to a tertiary care center. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old gravida 3 para 0020 at 18 weeks with a twin gestation presented to a medical treatment facility for evaluation of uterine cramps. She subsequently delivered Twin A. With cessation of labor, the patient was air evacuated to a medical center for continued care. Seven weeks later, she delivered a viable male infant. DISCUSSION: The treatment of multiple gestations presenting with preterm labor or rupture of membranes remains expectant. When delayed delivery of a previable second twin is undertaken, appropriate care includes the use of antibiotics, tocolytics, and cervical cerclage. Anticipation of preterm birth warrants continued care in a tertiary care center offering neonatal intensive care. ( info)

36/388. Successful pregnancy outcome after preterm premature rupture of membranes at < 20 weeks. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous preterm premature rupture of the membranes occurring before 20 weeks' gestation carries a perinatal mortality of approximately 82% and potential for considerable morbidity for mother and fetus. This is in contrast to amniotic fluid leakage after second-trimester amniocentesis, when the prognosis is usually good. CASES: We report three cases of spontaneous rupture of the membranes before 20 weeks' gestation, all associated with reaccumulation of amniotic fluid and satisfactory neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our cases may represent a subgroup with a relatively good prognosis. The existence of such subgroups would better be determined in a prospective, cohort study, and it might need to be a multicenter one. It requires well-defined entry criteria, management protocols and neonatal follow-up as well as information about pregnancies where termination, rather than continuation, is chosen. ( info)

37/388. A perinatal pathology view of preterm labor.

    The development and widespread use of tocolytic agents over the past 2 decades has not appeared to substantially affect the overall incidence of preterm delivery in the united states. Preterm delivery, therefore, remains one of the most poorly controlled and poorly understood mechanisms of perinatal morbidity and mortality and a significant strain on public health resources. The purpose of this review is to examine what is currently understood about the clinical manifestations and indicators of preterm delivery, and what, if any, may be the contribution of placental pathology to the understanding of the structural and functional abnormalities that may precede these clinical signs. Two case studies will be used to show how placental pathology may document a pattern of reproductive failure that eludes current methods of clinical screening. A retrospective analysis of what may have gone wrong in the pregnancies, focusing on the placental lesions, may contribute to a greater understanding of the heterogeneous overall processes behind recurrent idiopathic preterm delivery. Such analysis, in conjunction with known clinical factors, may guide the development of better-directed diagnostics and therapies. ( info)

38/388. q fever during pregnancy: an emerging cause of prematurity and abortion.

    BACKGROUND: Although the pathogenic role of coxiella burnetii infection during pregnancy is controversial, some cases of stillbirth and abortion occurring after an acute or chronic infection have been mentioned in the literature. Recently, Q fever has been advocated as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy CASE: We describe an 18-year-old primipara woman admitted to our hospital for high fever and pancytopenia during an acute C. burnetii infection. She was successfully treated with clarithromycin, overcoming fever and pancytopenia. Finally, she gave birth to a healthy infant, and 1 year later both remained well. CONCLUSION: q fever is a potentially serious disease in pregnancy owing to the possibility of placenta infection and fetal transmission affecting its outcome. q fever infection should be suspected in unexplained febrile episodes or abortion during pregnancy, when epidemiologic and clinical data are present. We believe that C. burnetii serology should be tested in cases of fever of known origin or unexplained abortions, as the TORCH infections are. ( info)

39/388. Management of a triplet pregnancy with two anencephalic fetuses and polyhydramnios.

    The occurrence of a triplet pregnancy discordant for anencephaly is rare and its management presents a clinical dilemma. We report what appears to be the first case of a triplet pregnancy with two anencephalic fetuses complicated by premature contractions and severe polyhydramnios. Its management, which results a healthy newborn weighing 1385 g is discussed. ( info)

40/388. Two case reports of rare fetal tumors: an indication for surface rendering?

    Fetal tumors are rare and can be difficult to diagnose in utero. This report describes one case of an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor and one case of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus. Both presented with moderate polyhydramnios and were prenatally detected at 31 weeks of gestation with two-dimensional ultrasound. The application of the surface mode of three-dimensional ultrasound improved the visualization of these tumors especially for the parents and the multidisciplinary team. Three-dimensional sonography proved to be a valuable addition to the prenatal armamentarium for the evaluation of these fetal tumors although it is not mandatory for their assessment and clinical management. ( info)
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