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1/32. Placental pathology casebook. Chorangiosis of the placenta increases the probability of perinatal mortality.

    Two apparent acute problems that may occur in labor, nuchal cord and placental abruption, were associated with chorangiosis of the placenta. The importance of complete placental examination in perinatal mortality is re-emphasized. The association of apparent acute obstetrical conditions, e.g., nuchal cord and placental abruption with chorangiosis of the placenta, may be the cause of fetal-newborn deaths that were previously assumed to be issues of labor management.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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2/32. uterine inversion: a life-threatening obstetric emergency.

    BACKGROUND: Acute puerperal uterine inversion is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication in which the uterine fundus collapses within the endometrial cavity. Although the cause of uterine inversion is unclear, several predisposing factors have been described. maternal mortality is extremely high unless the condition is recognized and corrected. methods: medline was searched from 1966 to the present using the key phrase "uterine inversion." Nonpuerperal uterine inversion case reports were excluded from review except when providing information on classification and diagnostic techniques. A summarized case involving uterine inversion and a review of the classification, etiology, diagnosis, and management are reported. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Although uncommon, if left unrecognized, uterine inversion will result in severe hemorrhage and shock, leading to maternal death. Manual manipulation should be attempted immediately to reverse the inversion. Tocolytics, such as magnesium sulfate and terbutaline, or halogenated anesthetics may be administered to relax the uterus to aid in reversal. Intravenous nitroglycerin provides an alternative to the tocolytics and offers several pharmacodynamic advantages. Treatment with hydrostatic pressure may be attempted while waiting for medications to be administered or for general anesthesia to be induced. In the most resistant of inversions, surgical correction might be required.
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ranking = 1552.3564765976
keywords = maternal death, death
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3/32. perinatal mortality and maternal mortality at the Provincial Hospital, Quang Ngai, South vietnam, 1967-1970.

    The perinatal mortality, maternal mortality, infant mortality rates, and the complications of delivery at the Provincial Hospital of Quang Ngai, South vietnam are described. The perinatal mortality is the only valid statistic available as the infant usually leaves the hospital within three days of delivery. knowledge pertaining to the 4th to 28th day after birth is scanty and there is insufficient knowledge about the first year of life. infant mortality is estimated at 277 per 1,000 live births. The perinatal mortality 64.6 per 1,000 live births, and maternal mortality, 106 per 10,000 live births are extremely high in contrast to Western countries. The high perinatal mortality is attributable to deaths during birth, the neonatal and immediate postnatal period. The high maternal mortality is primarily due to caesarean section, anemia, uterine rupture, toxemia, post-partum hemorrhage and puerperal infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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4/32. postpartum hemorrhage and intrauterine balloon tamponade. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: postpartum hemorrhage can become rapidly catastrophic. If medical management fails, then, according to recent reports, the use of an intrauterine inflated Foley catheter balloon for tamponade gives excellent results and can help avoid invasive procedures. CASE: We present one case of profuse hemorrhage following evacuation of the fetus after intrauterine fetal death at 17 weeks' gestation controlled with intrauterine balloon tamponade and two cases of severe postpartum hemorrhage (one immediate and one late) following normal vaginal deliveries, both controlled with Foley catheters. In either case the patient required no blood transfusions, and major surgery was avoided. CONCLUSION: Intrauterine balloon tamponade is highly effective. The catheter is readily available, is not expensive, does not require special training for insertion and, extremely important, can avoid major surgery.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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5/32. The ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for a large fetal neck mass in a twin gestation.

    BACKGROUND: Large fetal neck masses can make it difficult or impossible to secure airways at birth, with associated risks of hypoxia, brain injury, and death. Based on a medline search from 1966 to June 1998, using the keywords EXIT procedure, placental support, twins, and neck mass, we report the first ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure performed in a twin gestation complicated by a large fetal neck mass. CASE: A giant fetal cervical mass was diagnosed in one fetus of a 20-week twin gestation by sonography and magnetic resonance imaging. At 35 weeks' gestation, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure was performed successfully for delivery of the normal twin, followed by intrapartum airway access of the twin with the neck mass. CONCLUSION: Even in twin gestations, the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure is the delivery method of choice for fetuses with giant neck masses.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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6/32. EXIT procedure in a twin gestation and review of the literature.

    prenatal diagnosis can show masses of the fetal neck, mouth, and face that can potentially cause respiratory distress at birth. To prevent such an emergency, the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum technique) is performed: it is the intrapartum intubation of the fetus at term while still connected to the placenta. The EXIT procedure was first performed in a case of cervical teratoma. Up to now a total of 34 cases are described, mostly cervical teratomas (13 cases), lymphangiomas (7), epignathus (3); babies' outcome has been successful in 25 of them, with one death related to the procedure. Among the reported cases we are aware of only one where EXIT was performed in a twin gestation, in which the normal twin was delivered first. In our case the normal fetus was posterior to the twin with cervical malformation, requiring us to work on the latter while the former was still in the uterus. After having safely secured the airway in twin A, twin B was prompt delivered with excellent general conditions. Our limited experience enlarges the possibility to perform this prenatal procedure even in "nonstandard" conditions, such as a twin gestation, and may prove useful to those who are going to deal with such issues.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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7/32. Maternal deaths from anaesthesia. An extract from Why mothers die 1997-1999, the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.

    This article is reprinted from Why mothers Die 1997-1999, the fifth report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.
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ranking = 4
keywords = death
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8/32. Large uterine defect found at cesarean section. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Uncomplicated uterine perforation has been considered a benign event. Since the advent of operative hysteroscopy, there have been several reports of uterine rupture during pregnancy in patients who have undergone that procedure when complicated by known or unsuspected uterine perforation. Large fundal defects without rupture have also been reported. CASE: A 23-year-old, white woman was admitted for labor induction at 42 weeks' gestation. After an unsuccessful attempt at labor induction, a cesarean section (C/S) was performed. At that time a large (5-cm) fundal defect was noted. A thorough history suggested that the defect was probably the result of unsuspected perforation of the uterus during dilatation and currettage for a late first-trimester fetal death. A follow-up hysterosalpingogram was done and consultation obtained regarding future management. A course of expectant management with C/S prior to the onset of labor was advised. Three years later, after an uncomplicated pregnancy, a repeat C/S was done at 38 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSION: patients with a history of operative hysteroscopy or difficult curettage may have sustained known or unsuspected perforations of the uterus with subsequent scarring or defect, placing them at some risk of uterine rupture during pregnancy. patients should be counseled regarding these risks, and assessment by hysterography might be helpful.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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9/32. fetal heart rate patterns preceding intrauterine death during labor.

    A fetus of 37 weeks died in labor during recording of the fetal heart rate patterns. Five hours earlier a reactive non-stress test had been obtained. No other cause of death than a tight nuchal cord was found.
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ranking = 5
keywords = death
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10/32. Spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm in labour: a case report.

    Spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm during normal labour is extremely rare. It requires emergency surgical correction. The authors report what they believe is only the second reported case. Eleven hours after delivery of a male infant, a 27-year-old woman experienced severe epigastric pain, vomiting and dyspnea, followed by cardiopulmonary arrest. Although the ruptured diaphragm was diagnosed and repaired, she suffered severe anoxic encephalopathy and died 3 weeks after operation without regaining consciousness. Clinicians must be aware of the existence of this rare condition because failure to diagnose and treat the ruptured diaphragm will almost certainly lead to the patient's death.
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ranking = 1
keywords = death
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