Cases reported "Occupational Diseases"

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1/55. inhalation anthrax in a home craftsman.

    inhalation anthrax with complicating subarachnoid hemorrhage due to simultaneous infection with two capsular biotypes of bacillus anthracis of different virulence for the mouse is reported. The patient, a home craftsman, acquired his infection from imported animal-origin yarn.
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keywords = animal
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2/55. Cat cuddler's cough.

    pasteurella multocida typically causes cutaneous infections in humans following animal bites or scratches. Primary pulmonary disease, however, can occur in humans after inhalation of airborne particles or by aspiration of colonized or infected nasopharyngeal secretions containing this organism. Symptoms of P. multocida pulmonary infection in humans are variable, ranging from cough with or without hemoptysis to severe prostration. P. multocida infection of the lower respiratory tree has a predilection for elderly patients with underlying lung pathology, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. This report reminds the clinician that P. multocida can cause pulmonary infection in patients without underlying lung disease, and stresses the importance of careful history when presented with an indolent infection.
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keywords = animal
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3/55. Localised spontaneous regression in mesothelioma -- possible immunological mechanism.

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor usually associated with asbestos exposure. Although it can remain stable for prolonged periods, it has not been described to spontaneously regress. MM tumors are thought to be immunogenic based both on animal studies and on the good responses in some humans treated with immunotherapy. Here we present a case of pleural MM in which a transient spontaneous regression was associated with tumor tissue infiltration with mononuclear cells and serological evidence of anti-MM reactivity. The patient's tumor eventually progressed and with this progression there was evidence of loss of serological reactivity to some, but not all, of her MM antigens. The patient survived for 20 months and, in contrast to her initial biopsy, no significant lymphoid infiltrate was detected in her MM tissue at post mortem examination.
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keywords = animal
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4/55. Report of occupational asthma due to phytase and beta-glucanase.

    OBJECTIVES: Occupational asthma is the principal cause of respiratory disease in the workplace. The enzymes phytase and beta-glucanase are used in the agricultural industry to optimise the nutritional value of animal feeds. A relation between these enzymes and occupational asthma in a 43 year old man was suspected. methods: inhalation challenge tests were performed with the enzymes phytase, beta-glucanase, and amylase. Skin prick tests were performed with the enzymes diluted to a concentration of 1 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml. Specific IgE to phytase and beta-glucanase were measured with a radioallergosorbent test. RESULTS: Baseline spirometry values were normal. A histamine challenge test showed bronchial hyperreactivity. Exposure to phytase and beta-glucanase led to significant reductions in forced vital capacity and forced expired volume in 1 second. No significant differences were noted after exposure to amylase. skin tests showed a positive reaction to beta-glucanase (5 mm) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml and positive reactions to beta-glucanase (7 mm) and phytase (5 mm) at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Similarly specific IgE was present against both phytase and beta-glucanase, at 2.5% and 9.3% binding respectively (2% binding is considered positive). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of occupational asthma due to the enzymes phytase and beta-glucanase. Their addition to the ever increasing list of substances associated with occupational asthma will have notable implications for those exposed to these enzymes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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5/55. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) associated with staphylococcus spp. bacteremia, responsive to potassium arsenite 0.5% in a veterinary surgeon and his coworking wife, handling with CFS animal cases.

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in human patients remain a controversial and perplexing condition with emerging zoonotic aspects. Recent advances in human medicine seem to indicate a bacterial etiology and the condition has already been described in horses, dogs, cats and birds of prey in association with micrococci-like organisms in the blood. To evaluate the possibility of a chronic bacteremia, a veterinary surgeon (the author) and his coworking wife, both diagnosed with CFS and meeting the CDC working case definition, were submitted to rapid blood cultures and fresh blood smears investigations. blood cultures proved Staph-positive and micrococci-like organisms in the blood were repeatedly observed in the 3-year period preceding the arsenical therapy, during which several medicaments, including antibiotics, proved unsuccessful. Following treatment with a low dosage arsenical drug (potassium arsenite 0.5%, im., 1 ml/12 h, for 10 days) both patients experienced complete remission. At the post-treatment control made 1 month later, micrococci had disappeared from the blood, and the CD4/CD8 ratio was raising.
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ranking = 4
keywords = animal
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6/55. Occupational asthma after inhalation of dust of the proteolytic enzyme, papain.

    papain is a proteolytic enzyme widely used by biochemists. In experiments on animals papain has been shown to cause emphysema either when they inhaled a single small dose or after intratracheal inhalation. Four food technologists were occupationally exposed to heavy concentrations of papain dust in air. Subjects 1 and 2 developed an immediate acute asthmatic reaction, and symptoms of obstructive airways disease persisted for some months while each remained in the same working area, presumably exposed to small gradually diminishing amounts of residual papain dust. Tests of respiratory function were carried out on all four subjects 1 1/2 years later and showed in subjects 1 and 3 minimal abnormality of bronchial reactivity and of ventilation distribution. review of the literature reveals only two reports of asthma resulting from papain inhalation, although its antigenic and skin sensitizing qualities have been known and described for many years. It seems remarkable that a substance such as papain, shown to be a potent cause of lung damage in experimental animals, should have produced so little evidence of abnormality in our subjects after considerable exposure. Follow-up ventilatory function tests may cast further light on this but we postulate that the asthmatic response may be biologically protective and those lacking this reaction could later develop emphysema as a long-term outcome.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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7/55. Specific sensitization to the common housefly (Musca domestica) not related to insect panallergy.

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to houseflies is rare. We report a case of respiratory allergy from occupational exposure to houseflies in a farmer. CASE REPORT: A 30 year-old female farmer with a long-standing history of grass pollen allergy observed for 2 years rhino-conjunctivitis and mild asthma when entering livestock stables and barns. Allergy retesting revealed sensitization to various pollens but not to animal danders. houseflies (Musca domestica) occurring on the farm in great quantity were suspected by the farmer herself as the causative agent. RESULTS: Skin prick testing with housefly was positive in the patient and negative in four controls. Experimental radioallergosorbant test was class 3 positive. Sensitization to house dust mite, storage mites and cockroach was not detectable. Western blots with housefly extracts revealed immunoglobulin e (IgE)-binding to bands of 70, 50, and approximately 16 kDa. tropomyosin in the housefly extract (35 kDa) was recognized by a tropomyosin reference serum but not by the patient. In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition assays using housefly as the solid phase, IgE-binding of the patient was inhibited by 75% by M. domestica and by 44% by the closely related lesser housefly (Fannia canicularis), but not by extracts from blowfly (Lucilia spp.), fruit fly (drosophila spp.), horsefly (Haematopota pluvialis) and mosquito (culex pipiens). The IgE-binding of the tropomyosin control serum was inhibited by 60-80% by all species. CONCLUSIONS: In accordance with previous reports, this case demonstrates that respiratory sensitization to insects may be highly specific. According to ELISA inhibition, cross-sensitization in the present case was restricted to species of the family of true flies (muscidae).
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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8/55. Acute mercury intoxication with lichenoid drug eruption followed by mercury contact allergy and development of antinuclear antibodies.

    A 31-year-old black man was examined for evaluation of a suspected occupational disease. Three years earlier he had been suffering from acute mercury intoxication during work in a mercury recycling factory. Skin symptoms then had been a lichenoid drug eruption, patchy alopecia and stomatitis, which had all disappeared rapidly after systemic glucocorticosteroid treatment. The examination revealed positive patch test reactions to metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds, an elevated titre of serum antinuclear antibodies and normal IgE levels. The induction of antinuclear antibodies by mercury has been shown in animal experiments. It can be hypothesized that this patient, who may have had an increased individual susceptibility, became allergic to mercury by the mercury intoxication.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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9/55. Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee.

    BACKGROUND: Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. methods: A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound on a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. RESULTS: This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever (RBF) in a pet shop work setting. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small places of business like pet shops.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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10/55. Reproductive and developmental hazards and employment policies.

    The task of informing workers of hazards in the workplace is seldom more difficult than with the subject of reproductive and developmental hazards. occupational health staff and physicians are faced with a paucity of relevant medical information. Workers, kept aware of the thalidomide spectre with every media report of the latest descriptive epidemiology study, are anxious to know more. Employers, knowing that few agents are regulated on the basis of reproductive hazards, are encouraged to lessen workplace exposure to all agents but need guidance from government and scientists in setting priorities. Understandable ethical and scientific limitations on human studies require researchers to study animals and cells. The difficulties of extrapolating the results of this research to humans are well known. The scientific, medical, and workplace difficulties in dealing with reproductive and developmental hazards are mirrored in the regulatory positions found in north america. Some regard fetal protection policies as sex discrimination whereas others consider such policies as reasonable. Guidelines are provided to allow employers and medical practitioners to consider this difficult problem.
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keywords = animal
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