Cases reported "Occupational Diseases"

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1/164. Fingertip dermatitis in an ophthalmologist caused by proparacaine.

    PURPOSE: To report the late diagnosis of allergic response to proparacaine hydrochloride in an ophthalmologist. METHOD: Case report. In a 49-year-old practicing ophthalmologist, the history, clinical findings of fingertip dermatitis, skin pathology, and skin patch testing are described. RESULTS: Proparacaine, as the initiating agent, took almost 3 years to identify because of the unusual pattern of allergy. We explored numerous treatment options before identifying and removing the offending agent. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists may be exposed to proparacaine on a daily basis. This unique report heightens the awareness of this rare work-related complication.
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2/164. asthma due to inhaled chemical agents--fumes from 'Multicore' soldering flux and colophony resin.

    Four patients with occupational asthma associated with exposure to soldering flux or hot-melt glue containing pine resin (colophony) were subjected to occupational type inhalation challenge testing. All four gave immediate bronchial reactions to inhalation of the fumes, varying from one breath to 3 min of exposure. The clinical history and provocation test reactions suggest hypersensitivity to colophony fumes.
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3/164. Outbreak of Hendra-like virus--malaysia and singapore, 1998-1999.

    During September 29, 1998-April 4, 1999, 229 cases of febrile encephalitis (111 [48%] fatal) were reported to the Malaysian Ministry of health (MOH). During March 13-19, 1999, nine cases of similar encephalitic illnesses (one fatal) and two cases of respiratory illness occurred among abattoir workers in singapore. Tissue culture isolation identified a previously unknown infectious agent from ill patients. This report summarizes the preliminary epidemiologic and laboratory investigations of these cases, which indicate that a previously unrecognized paramyxovirus related to, but distinct from, the Australian hendra virus is associated with this outbreak.
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4/164. Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.

    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk.
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5/164. asthma due to inhaled chemical agents--the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin.

    One year after starting work in the pharmaceutical industry a 35-year-old non-atopic maintenance engineer developed attacks of sneezing, coughing and breathlessness. These occurred at home during the evening and early morning, never at work during the day. His employment involved contact with a wide variety of chemical agents including the macrolide antibiotic spiramycin. inhalation challenge tests carried out in hospital with gradually increasing quantities of spiramycin reproduced his symptoms and led to the development of late asthmatic reactions, during which the FEV1 fell by 25% and the FEV1/FVC ratio by 15%. No change occurred in the single breath CO transfer factor nor were crepitations heard over the lung fields which remained normal on chest X-ray. The patient showed positive immediate skin prick tests to spiramycin and developed blood eosinophilia during the late asthma attacks. inhalation of sodium cromoglycate either before, or before and hourly after the provocation challenge for 6 hr, failed to prevent the late asthma, although its onset was further delayed. On leaving the pharmaceutical industry the patient's symptoms improved but did not finally clear until his wife, who had worked in a clerical capacity in the same factory also ceased her employment.
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6/164. pulmonary fibrosis in a steel mill worker.

    We report a case of pulmonary fibrosis in a 32-year-old man, who had worked at a steel mill and who died of respiratory failure due to interstitial fibrosis despite vigorous treatment. He showed SLE-associated symptoms, such as pleural effusion, malar rashes, discoid rashes, arthritis, leukopenia, and positive antinuclear antibody and anti-histone antibody. However, he did not present anti-dna antibody. A thoracoscopic lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis, chronic inflammation and a small non-caseating granuloma in lung tissues, which could be induced by external agents such as metals. The manganese concentration in the lung tissue was 4.64 microg/g compared to 0.42-0.7 microg/g in the controls. The levels of other metals, such as iron, nickel, cobalt and zinc in patient's lung tissue were higher than those in the controls. The patient was probably exposed to Si and various metal dusts, and the lung fibrosis was related to these exposures. Exposure to Si and metal dusts should be sought in the history of any patient with SLE, especially in a male with pulmonary signs, and if present, exposure should be stopped. In the meantime, steps should be taken to ensure that workers exposure to Si and metal dusts in all environments have adequate protection.
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7/164. Severe asthma and ARDS triggered by acute short-term exposure to commonly used cleaning detergents.

    This report presents a case of severe asthmatic attack and adult respiratory distress syndrome, which occurred in an asthmatic subject following acute short-term exposure to commonly used cleaning detergents. Premorbid lung conditions, i.e. asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness, might have been risk factors for illness severity but not for persistent complaints. This case report indicates that nonindustrial exposures due to household product misuse, especially to mixing cleaning agents, may cause adult respiratory distress syndrome and not only irritant-induced asthma.
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8/164. Fatal methane and cyanide poisoning as a result of handling industrial fish: a case report and review of the literature.

    The potential health hazards of handling industrial fish are well documented. Wet fish in storage consume oxygen and produce poisonous gases as they spoil. In addition to oxygen depletion, various noxious agents have been demonstrated in association with spoilage including carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ammonia. A fatal case of methane and cyanide poisoning among a group of deep sea trawler men is described. Subsequent independent investigation as a result of this case led to the discovery of cyanides as a further potential noxious agent. This is thus the first case in which cyanide poisoning has been recognised as a potentially fatal complication of handling spoiled fish. The previous literature is reviewed and the implications of the current case are discussed.
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9/164. Occupational asthma caused by bacillary amylase used in the detergent industry.

    Four cases are reported of occupational asthma due to amylase derived from bacillus licheniformis, used in detergent washing powders. It is thought that these are the first reported cases of asthma due to this enzyme in the detergent industry. All four employees (men) were from the same factory and none had a history of asthma or atopy. All developed symptoms of wheeze at work after an initial symptom free period. Symptoms improved during periods away from work. All undertook serial peak flow recordings (not diagnostic) and underwent skin prick tests, radio allergosorbent test (RAST) measurement, and specific bronchial provocation testing. The bronchial provocation testing was performed by a dust tipping method in a single blind manner, with lactose as an inert control and powdered amylase, provided by the employer, as an active agent. Serial measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) were recorded and histamine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV(1) (PC(20)) tests were determined before and 24 hours after each challenge. Patient 1 developed an isolated early reaction, patient 2 an isolated late reaction, and patients 3 and 4 developed dual reactions. All showed an increased non-specific bronchial responsiveness after active challenge. The introduction of encapsulated enzymes in the detergent industry was followed by a reduction in the incidence of respiratory sensitisation. These patients developed occupational asthma despite working only with encapsulated enzymes. This highlights the importance of careful surveillance after the introduction of new agents in the workplace.
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10/164. Occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by multiple herbal agents in a pharmacist.

    BACKGROUND: Herb agents have been widely used for centuries in the Orient and they have been cultivated throughout asia. There have been a few cases of occupational allergy caused by herb materials. We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by six herb materials in a pharmacist working at a pharmacy. OBJECTIVE: We sought the role of immediate hypersensitivity in herbal agent-induced asthma in a pharmacist. methods AND RESULTS: The patient had strong positive responses on skin prick test to extracts of six herb materials: Chunkung (Cnidii rhizoma), Banha (pinellia ternata), Sanyak (dioscorea radix), Kangwhal (Ostericum koreanum), Danggui (angelica radix), and Kunkang (Zingiberis rhizoma). Bronchoprovocation tests showed an early asthmatic response to Danggui extract. serum specific IgE antibodies to Chunkung, Banha, and Sanyak were detected by ELISA with no specific IgE bindings to Kangwhal, Danggui, and Kunkang extracts. Twelve percent sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE immunoblotting revealed one IgE binding component (60 kD) within Chunkung extract, two (10, 25 kD) in Banha, and four (33, 34, 65, 98 kD) in Sanyak. Basophil histamine release test revealed that Danggui extract could release a greater amount of histamine from basophils in the patient than in a healthy control. CONCLUSIONS: Chunkung, Banha, and Sanyak may induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in an exposed worker, and Danggui can cause bronchoconstriction by direct histamine-releasing effect from mast cells in a sensitized patient.
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