Cases reported "Occupational Diseases"

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1/75. radium-induced malignant tumors of the mastoid and paranasal sinuses.

    In the records of 5,058 persons with therapeutic or occupational exposure to radium, 21 patients with carcinoma of the mastoid and 11 with malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were identified. Tumor induction times were 21-50 years for mastoid tumors (median, 33) and 19-52 years for paranasal sinus tumors (median, 34). Dosimetric data are given for the patients whose body burdens of radium have been measured. We found a high proportion of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, comprising 38% of the mastoid and 36% of the paranasal sinus tumors. Three patients had antecedent bone sarcoma at 20, 11, and 5 years, respectively, and a bone sarcoma was discovered at autopsy in a fourth patient. Radiographic changes in the mastoid and paranasal sinuses were similar to those seen in nonradium malignant tumors. More than 800 known persons exposed to radium before 1930 and another group of unknown size who received radium water or injections of radium from physicians are still alive and at risk of developing malignant tumors of the mastoid and paranasal sinuses.
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2/75. Accelerated silicosis with mixed-dust pneumoconiosis in a hard-metal grinder.

    We describe a fatal case of accelerated silicosis with a component of mixed-dust pneumoconiosis in a young hard-metal grinder that we believe is the first case of its kind in israel and one of the rare cases reported worldwide. The patient's diagnosis was based on typical features: restrictive lung function, abnormal chest roentgenogram suggesting lung fibrosis, a history of exposure to silica and hard metals, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings, and mineralogical studies. BAL cells showed an abundance of giant multinucleated macrophages. The CD4/CD8 ratio of T lymphocytes was 1.1, with a high percentage of CD8 and CD8/38 positive cells (37% suppressor/cytotoxic and 12% cytotoxic T lymphocytes, respectively). mRNA transcripts isolated from BAL cells were positive for interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor (TGF) Il-5, IL-2, and IL-10 but not for IL-6, IL-4, and interferon. Polarizing light microscopic studies of BAL and induced sputum cells showed polarizing particles, which are typical for silica. Mineralogical studies of electron microscopy performed on BAL fluid and on dust collected at the patient's workstation revealed silica particles as well as aluminum-titanium and other particles. The latter might have contributed to the patient's lung disease.
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keywords = macrophage
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3/75. Parosteal osteosarcoma of the ring finger metacarpal in a semi-professional pianist.

    We report treatment of a low grade parosteal osteosarcoma of the ring finger metacarpal in a patient who would not contemplate ray amputation because of her career. Surgery involved excision of the bone, extracorporeal radiation then re-implantation.
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4/75. Invading basal cell carcinoma of the jaw: an under-evaluated complex entity.

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive neoplasm, rarely metastatic, yet capable of significant local destruction and disfigurement. Invasion into the bone is uncommon and only a few cases of invasion into facial bones, but never to the mandible or maxilla, have been described. We report three patients with BCC lesions invading their jaws, as a consequence of which either their mandible or maxilla had to be partially resected. This resulted in facial mutilation which required comprehensive multi-disciplinary therapy to restore function and esthetics. Such therapy requires a combination of modalities offered by both plastic and maxillofacial surgeons, as well as oral and dental rehabilitators.
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5/75. A left pleural effusion with a calcified tumoral mass and left hemithoracic uptake on bone scan.

    Diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare primary tumor of the pleura with three principal histological types, epithelial; mesenchymal and mixed epithelial and mesenchymal. We report here a case of a mesenchymal mesothelioma with foci of osteosarcomatous degeneration revealed by dense calcifications associated with the pleural effusion on the computed tomography (CT) of the thorax. The bone scan revealed extraosseous uptake corresponding to the left pleura.
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6/75. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a battery-factory worker exposed to cadmium.

    A 44-year-old patient died from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after nine years of heavy exposure to cadmium (Cd) in a nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery factory. Two years after starting work he and co-workers had experienced pruritus, loss of smell, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, cough, shortness of breath, severe headaches, bone pain, and proteinuria. Upper back pain and muscle weakness progressed to flaccid paralysis. EMG findings were consistent with motor neuron disease. Cd impairs the blood-brain barrier, reduces levels of brain copper-zinc (Cu-Zn) superoxide dismutase (SOD), and enhances excitoxicity of glutamate via up-regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase and down-regulation of glutamate uptake in glial cells. High levels of methallothionein, a sign of exposure to heavy metals, have been found in brain tissue of deceased ALS patients. The effects of Cd on enzyme systems that mediate neurotoxicity and motor neuron disease suggest a cause effect relationship between Cd and ALS in this worker.
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7/75. Brief note and evaluation of acute-radiation syndrome and treatment of a Tokai-mura criticality accident patient.

    Patient A who was exposed to a critical dose of radiation developed skin lesions throughout the body surface, gastrointestinal disorder with massive diarrhea and prominent bleeding, which caused severe loss in body fluids. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to the deteriorated intestinal mucosa was considered to be one of the major causes of death, although infection did not develop, possibly because of SDD and aseptic intensive care, until terminal stages. Patient A ultimately developed respiratory and renal failure in addition to skin exudate and gastrointestinal bleeding, and died of multiple organ failure on the 83rd day after exposure. The extreme unevenness of the dose distribution and the neutron versus y-ray component made the clinical manifestation very complicated. Initially, the mean absorbed dose was calculated as 16-20 GyEq for Patient A, mainly based on neutron-activated 24Na in the blood. However, a very recent calculation showed that the absorbed skin dose was highest at the upper-right abdomen reaching 61.8 Gy (27.0 as neutron plus 34.8 Gy as y-ray). The dorsal side was calculated to have received one eighth of the value of the abdominal side, and much smaller neutron component. His absorbed-dose distribution throughout the body was very inhomogeneous because of the closeness of the standing point to the mixing tank. Despite prolonged survival because of intensive care with massive fluids and blood transfusion, peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, cultured skin-cell grafts, and the administration of cytokines for marrow, the patient was not saved. Restoration of the bone marrow function, prevention of skin fibrosis, radiation lung damage, and repair of gastrointestinal mucosa, and final recovery of the patient were elusive. Abundant personnel and resources were also a prerequisite to allow for the comprehensive and collective intensive care. A further understanding of the effects of high-dose radiation as well as the basic and clinical development of regeneration medicine are important issues for the future.
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keywords = bone
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8/75. lead poisoning: case studies.

    Early clinical features of lead toxicity are non-specific and an occupational history is particularly valuable. Lead in the body comprises 2% in the blood (t1/2 35 days) and 95% in bone and dentine (t1/2 20-30 years). Blood lead may remain elevated for years after cessation from long exposure, due to redistribution from bone. Blood lead concentration is the most widely used marker for inorganic lead exposure. zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentration in blood usefully reflects lead exposure over the prior 3 months. Symptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) or in any event >3.8 micromol l-1 (80 microg dl-1) should receive sodium calciumedetate i.v., followed by succimer by mouth for 19 days. Asymptomatic patients with blood lead concentration >2.4 micromol l-1 (50 microg dl-1) may be treated with succimer alone. sodium calciumedetate should be given with dimercaprol to treat lead encephalopathy.
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9/75. Lead encephalopathy: CT and MR findings.

    Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them bone marrow, muscles, kidneys, endocrine glands, joints, and nervous system. Encephalopathy is a rare but severe complication of lead poisoning. Lead toxicity is much less common in adults. adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. In this report, two cases of adult toxic encephalopathy due to lead poisoning are presented with CT and MR findings.
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10/75. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a new york city firefighter exposed to World Trade Center dust.

    We report a sentinel case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a firefighter exposed to high concentrations of World Trade Center dust during the rescue effort from September 11 to 24. The firefighter presented with a Pa(O2) of 53 mm Hg and responded to oxygen and corticosteroids. Computed tomography scan showed patchy ground glass density, thickened bronchial walls, and bilateral pleural effusions. bronchoalveolar lavage recovered 70% eosinophils, with only 1% eosinophils in peripheral blood. eosinophils were not degranulated and increased levels of interleukin-5 were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. Mineralogic analysis counted 305 commercial asbestos fibers/10(6) macrophages including those with high aspect ratios, and significant quantities of fly ash and degraded fibrous glass. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare consequence of acute high dust exposure. World Trade Center dust consists of large particle-size silicates, but fly ash and asbestos fibers may be found in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.
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ranking = 65.932930045181
keywords = macrophage
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