Cases reported "Occupational Diseases"

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11/921. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a welder exposed to metal fumes.

    A 43-year-old man began having malaise, chills, and fever 12 hours after cutting a galvanized steel grating with an acetylene torch at work. Over the next 72 hours, his symptoms persisted and became worse with progressive shortness of breath. He was admitted to the hospital and begun on antibiotics and steroids. The next day his condition had deteriorated to the point that he had to be intubated. Chest x-ray film and computed tomography showed patchy and interstitial infiltration bilaterally, consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Open lung biopsy showed focal mild interstitial pneumonia. Multiple laboratory studies were negative for an infectious or an immune process. The patient remained on mechanical ventilation for 10 days and was discharged from the hospital 2 days after extubation. He continued to improve, with minimal symptoms and a return to normal activity levels several months after the incident with no continued treatment. Re-creation of his exposure was done under controlled circumstances, with air sampling revealing elevated air levels for cadmium and zinc and borderline levels of arsenic, manganese, lead, and iron.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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12/921. Nylon flock-associated interstitial lung disease.

    A work-related interstitial lung disease has been diagnosed in workers at five nylon flock facilities in three different states and a Canadian province. The National Institute for Occupational safety and Health hosted a workshop at which consulting pulmonary pathologists reviewed lung tissue samples from all the cases for which lung biopsy material was available (15 of 20 cases known in January 1998). After independent review and scoring of these lung tissue specimens, the pathologists reached consensus that the histopathological findings revealed a characteristic lesion-a lymphocytic bronchiolitis and peribronchiolitis with lymphoid hyperplasia represented by lymphoid aggregates. The pathologists noted that the pathological findings were distinctive when compared with known lung conditions. The clinical presentation for the cases generally included cough, dyspnea, restrictive ventilatory defect with reduction in diffusing capacity, and interstitial markings on chest radiographs or high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Six of the cases improved after removal from workplace exposure without medical treatment. Six others, who had recovered with medical treatment and removal from the workplace, had relapses in both symptoms and objective findings after attempting to return to nylon flock work. With this and other evidence supporting the existence of chronic interstitial pneumonitis associated with nylon flock processing, workshop participants recommended surveillance for early identification of affected workers and their removal from further workplace exposure.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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13/921. Occupational protein contact dermatitis to cornstarch in a paper adhesive.

    BACKGROUND: Protein contact dermatitis is better known in food-service and health-care workers than in industrial workers. Cornstarch has seldom been a problem, although it can cause contact urticaria to glove powder. OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a paper-bag maker who developed severe occupational (protein) contact dermatitis within two-three hours after returning to work. She lacked any evidence of urticaria and demonstrated largely negative patch-test results. methods: Following a history of occupational exposure to a cornstarch-based adhesive, the patient was patch-tested to materials with which she had worked, which she contacted, and with which she had attempted treatment. Following patch testing, she was prick-tested to cornstarch, the principal ingredient in the adhesive. RESULTS: Patch testing was negative except for a very mild reaction to the adhesive. Prick testing to cornstarch was more severe than the histamine control. The test site became eczematous and remained so for more than ten weeks. Avoidance of cornstarch and the adhesive was followed by clearing. CONCLUSION: Workup for prominent occupational contact dermatitis without urticaria may sometimes require testing for type 1 allergy.
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ranking = 210.70698170359
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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14/921. Occupational asthma and contact dermatitis in a spray painter after introduction of an aziridine cross-linker.

    A 23-year-old spray painter developed contact dermatitis and respiratory difficulty characterized by small airways obstruction shortly after the polyfunctional aziridine cross-linker CX-100 began to be used in his workplace as a paint activator. The symptoms resolved after he was removed from the workplace and was treated with inhaled and topical steroids. Painters may have an increased risk of asthma due to exposure to a variety of agents, such as isocyanates, alkyd resins, and chromates. This case illustrates the importance of using appropriate work practices and personal protective equipment to minimize exposure. Occupational asthma is diagnosed by a history of work-related symptoms and exposure to known causative agents. The diagnosis is confirmed by serial pulmonary function testing or inhalational challenge testing. The risk of asthma attributable to occupational exposures is probably underappreciated due to underreporting and to inappropriate use of narrow definitions of exposure in epidemiologic studies of attributable risk.
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ranking = 214.70698170359
keywords = occupational exposure, exposure
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15/921. Accelerated silicosis with mixed-dust pneumoconiosis in a hard-metal grinder.

    We describe a fatal case of accelerated silicosis with a component of mixed-dust pneumoconiosis in a young hard-metal grinder that we believe is the first case of its kind in israel and one of the rare cases reported worldwide. The patient's diagnosis was based on typical features: restrictive lung function, abnormal chest roentgenogram suggesting lung fibrosis, a history of exposure to silica and hard metals, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid findings, and mineralogical studies. BAL cells showed an abundance of giant multinucleated macrophages. The CD4/CD8 ratio of T lymphocytes was 1.1, with a high percentage of CD8 and CD8/38 positive cells (37% suppressor/cytotoxic and 12% cytotoxic T lymphocytes, respectively). mRNA transcripts isolated from BAL cells were positive for interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor (TGF) Il-5, IL-2, and IL-10 but not for IL-6, IL-4, and interferon. Polarizing light microscopic studies of BAL and induced sputum cells showed polarizing particles, which are typical for silica. Mineralogical studies of electron microscopy performed on BAL fluid and on dust collected at the patient's workstation revealed silica particles as well as aluminum-titanium and other particles. The latter might have contributed to the patient's lung disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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16/921. An alleged poisoning with methanol and formaldehyde.

    It was alleged that a defendant added an unspecified amount of undyed formalin solution, containing formaldehyde and methanol, to the victim's bottle of ice and drinking water. The medical report indicated that except for a slight elevation of total creatine kinase, all other chemistry profiles were within normal ranges. The elevation of creatine kinase suggested muscle injury and inflammation; however, the significance of this elevation was not clear. Toxicological evaluations were made by conducting risk assessments. Based upon the medical report and risk assessments, the following conclusions were made: The calculated exposure doses of methanol and formaldehyde were too low to cause appreciable adverse effects; however, formaldehyde may have irritated the gastrointestinal tract causing smooth muscle and mucosal inflammation. The doses of methanol and formaldehyde were too low to cause death. The exposure scenario (a single oral exposure to formaldehyde) would not likely increase the cancer risk in the victim. The risk assessments provided resulted in a reduction in charge from attempted murder to felony.
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ranking = 3
keywords = exposure
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17/921. Occupational allergic rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by bishop's weed (ammi majus).

    Bishop's weed (ammi majus) has been known to induce toxic phytophotodermatitis. We now describe IgE-mediated rhinitis and contact urticaria caused by exposure to bishop's weed in a 31-year-old atopic female florist. A skin prick-prick test with bishop's weed flowers gave an 8-mm wheal, and the bishop's weed-specific IgE level in the patient's serum was 9.7 PRU/ml (RAST class 3). In an immunoblotting experiment with the patient's serum, nine IgE-binding protein bands with the molecular weights 19, 34, 39-41 (doublet), 52-61 (doublet), and >67 (triplet) kDa were detected in bishop's weed extract. The patient became symptomless after she had ceased to work as a florist.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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18/921. Sensitization to triglycidylisocyanurate (TGIC) with cutaneous and respiratory manifestations.

    The case is presented of a man with allergic contact dermatitis and occupational asthma due to triglycidylisocyanurate (TGIC), which is used as a hardener in thermosetting powder paint. The contact dermatitis was confirmed by patch testing (TGIC 0.5% and 5% in petrolatum), and the occupational asthma was confirmed by bronchial provocation testing: two challenges to an aerosol of lactose containing TGIC (0.05% and 0.1%, w/w, each for 0.5 1 2 4 min) led to a maximal decrease in FEV1 of 22% and 31% after 6 and 4 h, respectively. skin prick tests with unconjugated TGIC were possibly positive. This case confirms that exposure to TGIC in powder paints may cause not only contact dermatitis, but also occupational asthma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exposure
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19/921. tuberculosis on the flight deck.

    tuberculosis in commercial aircraft has been a concern since a 1995 incident of possible transmission from an active case of tuberculosis to passengers in the cabin of a 747. Subsequently, commercial air carriers have been vigilant in cooperating with public health authorities in tracking all known exposures to tuberculosis. In 1998, a pilot of a commercial airliner was diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Company records demonstrated that in the previous 6 mo, the pilot had flown with 48 other pilots. Every exposed pilot was contacted and evaluated by skin testing (IPPD) or chest x-ray if previously positive. There were no skin test conversions and no changes on x-rays. This study demonstrates that transmission of tuberculosis in the aircraft cabin environment, even under close and continuous exposure to an active case, is a rare event.
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ranking = 2
keywords = exposure
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20/921. Aplastic anemia in a petrochemical factory worker.

    A petrochemical worker with aplastic anemia was referred to our hospital. He worked in a petroleum resin-producing factory and had been exposed to low-level benzene while packaging the powder resin and pouring lime into a deactivation tank. According to the yearly environmental survey of the working area, the airborne benzene level was approximately 0.28 ppm. Exposure to benzene, a common chemical used widely in industry, may progressively lead to pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. The hematotoxicity of benzene is related to the amount and duration of exposure. Most risk predictions for benzene exposures have been based on rubber workers who were exposed to high concentrations. In the petroleum industry, the concentration of benzene is relatively low, and there are disputes over the toxicity of low-level benzene because of a lack of evidence. In this paper we report the case of aplastic anemia induced by low-level benzene exposure.
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ranking = 3
keywords = exposure
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