Cases reported "Occupational Diseases"

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11/142. carbon disulfide vasculopathy: a small vessel disease.

    We present the clinical manifestations of 4 male patients with acute stroke-like symptoms and polyneuropathy after long-term exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a viscose rayon plant. The ages of onset of polyneuropathy ranged from 42 to 45 years with a duration of CS2 exposure between 6 and 21 years. The ages of onset of stroke were from 42 to 48 years. The risk factors for stroke including heart disease and diabetes were denied, except for smoking in 4, hyperlipidemia in 2 and hypertension in 1. At the initial visit in 1992, only 2 patients developed sudden onset of hemiparesis suggesting a lacunar stroke before the diagnosis of CS2 intoxication. brain computed tomography (CT) scans showed low-density lesions in the basal ganglia in 2 patients, cortical atrophy in 1 and normal in 1. brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) study disclosed multiple lesions in the corona radiata and basal ganglia on T(2)-weighted images in 3 patients and cortical atrophy in 1. After the diagnosis, they left their jobs for a CS2-free environment, and improvement of the working conditions was noted. During 5 years follow-up period, another 2 patients also developed an acute episode of stroke with hemiparesis. brain CT and/or MRI follow-up studies in these 2 patients revealed new lesions in the basal ganglia and corona radiata. Intriguingly, a patient with previous stroke also developed new lesions in the bilateral thalami and brainstem. Carotid Doppler scan, transcranial Doppler scan and/or cerebral angiography did not show any prominent stenosis or occlusion in the major intracranial large arteries. We conclude that encephalopathy may occur in patients after long-term CS2 exposure, probably due to impaired cerebral perfusion. The lesions tend to occur in the basal ganglia, corona radiata and even brainstem, particularly involving the small-sized vessels. In addition, the cerebral lesions may progress even after cessation of CS2 exposure. Therefore, we suggest that CS2 exposure may be a risk factor for stroke.
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12/142. Pitfalls associated with fixation of osteochondritis dissecans fragments using bioabsorbable screws.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate 2 cases in which bioabsorbable screw fixation for an osteochondritis dissecans lesion of the femoral condyle resulted in complications necessitating the need for secondary surgery. We reviewed the case history of these patients and described the circumstances under which the bioabsorbable screws were used, the events leading to the need for secondary surgery, and the ultimate outcome. In the 2 cases presented, these implants were found to retain their mechanical stiffness for many months. This resulted in articular damage in 1 case after the treated lesion failed to heal. In the second case, screw breakage 8 months after implantation resulted in it becoming a loose body, which required removal during a second arthroscopic procedure. We conclude that these implants retain their mechanical properties for many months and cannot be relied on to degrade quickly. If a treated lesion fails to heal, these implants can cause mechanical problems due to their retained structural properties.
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13/142. Rhinoconjunctivitis and occupational asthma caused by Diplotaxis erucoides (wall rocket).

    Wall rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides) is a common Crucifera plant that grows in European and American vineyards and olive groves. We present the cases of 2 farmers with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma related to wine-growing tasks during D erucoides pollination (March-April). The aim of this work was to demonstrate that occupational symptoms were caused by D erucoides pollen sensitization. Cutaneous tests, specific IgE measurements, conjunctival and bronchial provocation tests, and peak-flow measurements during working days were performed.
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14/142. Successful treatment with adefovir dipivoxil in a patient with fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis and lamivudine resistant hepatitis b virus.

    Fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH) is a severe clinical and histological variant of hepatitis b virus (HBV) infection seen most commonly in the HBV infected allograft after liver transplantation. Without treatment, FCH is fatal, rapidly and universally. Remission has been reported with lamivudine but is associated with evolving resistance to lamivudine. Adefovir dipivoxil has recently been reported to be a potent and highly effective inhibitor of HBV replication in both wild-type and lamivudine resistant HBV infection. We report a case of FCH 15 months after liver transplantation for HBV related cirrhosis despite therapy with lamivudine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Within two weeks of commencing treatment with adefovir dipivoxil 10 mg once daily, the patient had made a remarkable recovery with resolution of jaundice and normalisation of liver biochemistry. HBV dna and hepatitis B e antigen were lost from serum subsequently and liver histology had improved at four months. This case report suggests firstly, that advanced FCH can be reversed and secondly, that addition of adefovir dipivoxil to lamivudine and HBIg may be an effective antiviral strategy.
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15/142. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: II. mortality from mesothelioma.

    As part of our ongoing mortality surveillance program for the US man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) industry, we examined mortality from malignant mesothelioma using data from our 1989 follow-up of 3478 rock/slag wool workers and our 1992 follow-up of 32,110 fiberglass workers. A manual search of death certificates for 1011 rock/slag wool workers and 9060 fiberglass workers revealed only 10 death certificates with any mention of the word "mesothelioma." A subsequent review of medical records and pathology specimens for 3 of the 10 workers deemed two deaths as definitely not due to mesothelioma and one as having a 50% chance of being caused by mesothelioma. Two other deaths, for which only medical records were available, were given less than a 50% chance of being due to mesothelioma. Eight of the 10 decedents had potential occupational asbestos exposure inside or outside the MMVF industry. We also estimated the mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma in the cohort using two cause-of-death categorizations that included both malignant and benign coding rubrics. Using the more comprehensive scheme, we observed overall deficits in deaths among the total cohort and fiberglass workers and an overall excess among rock/slag wool workers. The excess in respiratory system cancer is largely a reflection of elevated lung cancer risks that we attributed mainly to confounding by smoking, to exposures outside the MMVF industry to agents such as asbestos, or to one or more of the several co-exposures present in many of the study plants (including asbestos). The second scheme, which focused on pleural mesothelioma in time periods when specific malignant mesothelioma coding rubrics were available, classified only one cohort death as being caused by malignant mesothelioma, compared with 2.19 expected deaths (local county comparison). We conclude that the overall mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma does not seem to be elevated in the US MMVF cohort.
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16/142. n-Hexane-related peripheral neuropathy among automotive technicians--california, 1999-2000.

    solvents, glues, spray paints, coatings, silicones, and other products contain normal (n-) hexane, a petroleum distillate and simple aliphatic hydrocarbon. n-Hexane is an isomer of hexane and was identified as a peripheral neurotoxin in 1964. Since then, many cases of n-hexane-related neurotoxicity have occurred in printing plants, sandal shops, and furniture factories in asia, europe, and the united states. This report describes an investigation of n-hexane-associated peripheral neuropathy in an automotive technician, an occupation in which this condition has not been reported, and summarizes the results of two other case investigations in the automotive repair industry. The findings suggest that solvent manufacturers should avoid using hexane when producing automotive degreasing products, and automotive technicians should avoid regular contact with hexane-based cleaning solvents.
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17/142. Initial symptoms of acute radiation syndrome in the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    A criticality accident occurred on September 30, 1999, at the uranium conversion plant in Tokai-mura (Tokai-village), Ibaraki Prefecture, japan. When the criticality occurred, three workers saw a "blue-white glow," and a radiation monitor alarm was sounded. They were severely exposed to neutron and gamma-ray irradiation, and subsequently developed acute radiation syndrome (ARS). One worker reported vomiting within minutes and loss of consciousness for 10-20 seconds. This worker also had diarrhea an hour after the exposure. The other worker started to vomit almost an hour after the exposure. The three workers, including their supervisor, who had no symptoms at the time, were brought to the National Mito Hospital by ambulance. Because of the detection of gamma-rays from their body surface by preliminary surveys and decreased numbers of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, they were transferred to the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), which has been designated as a hospital responsible for radiation emergencies. Dose estimations for the three workers were performed by prodromal symptoms, serial changes of lymphocyte numbers, chromosomal analysis, and 24Na activity. The results obtained from these methods were fairly consistent. Most of the data, such as the dose rate of radiation, its distribution, and the quality needed to evaluate the average dose, were not available when the decision for hematopoitic stem cell transplantation had to be made. Therefore, prodromal symptoms may be important in making decisions for therapeutic strategies, such as stem-cell transplantation in heavily exposed victims.
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18/142. Brief note and evaluation of acute-radiation syndrome and treatment of a Tokai-mura criticality accident patient.

    Patient A who was exposed to a critical dose of radiation developed skin lesions throughout the body surface, gastrointestinal disorder with massive diarrhea and prominent bleeding, which caused severe loss in body fluids. Gastrointestinal bleeding due to the deteriorated intestinal mucosa was considered to be one of the major causes of death, although infection did not develop, possibly because of SDD and aseptic intensive care, until terminal stages. Patient A ultimately developed respiratory and renal failure in addition to skin exudate and gastrointestinal bleeding, and died of multiple organ failure on the 83rd day after exposure. The extreme unevenness of the dose distribution and the neutron versus y-ray component made the clinical manifestation very complicated. Initially, the mean absorbed dose was calculated as 16-20 GyEq for Patient A, mainly based on neutron-activated 24Na in the blood. However, a very recent calculation showed that the absorbed skin dose was highest at the upper-right abdomen reaching 61.8 Gy (27.0 as neutron plus 34.8 Gy as y-ray). The dorsal side was calculated to have received one eighth of the value of the abdominal side, and much smaller neutron component. His absorbed-dose distribution throughout the body was very inhomogeneous because of the closeness of the standing point to the mixing tank. Despite prolonged survival because of intensive care with massive fluids and blood transfusion, peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, cultured skin-cell grafts, and the administration of cytokines for marrow, the patient was not saved. Restoration of the bone marrow function, prevention of skin fibrosis, radiation lung damage, and repair of gastrointestinal mucosa, and final recovery of the patient were elusive. Abundant personnel and resources were also a prerequisite to allow for the comprehensive and collective intensive care. A further understanding of the effects of high-dose radiation as well as the basic and clinical development of regeneration medicine are important issues for the future.
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19/142. Respiratory illness in workers exposed to metalworking fluid contaminated with nontuberculous mycobacteria--ohio, 2001.

    In January 2001, three machinists at an automobile brake manufacturing facility in ohio (plant A) were hospitalized with respiratory illness characterized by dyspnea, cough, fatigue, weight loss, hypoxia, and pulmonary infiltrates. hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) was diagnosed in all three workers. In March 2001, additional employees began seeking medical attention for respiratory and systemic symptoms. In May 2001, union and management representatives requested assistance from CDC's National Institute for Occupational safety and Health (NIOSH) in determining the cause of the illnesses and preventing further illness in employees. This report describes two case reports and the preliminary results of the ongoing investigation, which found that exposure to aerosolized nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) might be contributing to the observed respiratory illnesses in this manufacturing facility. Clinicians and public health professionals should be alert to the variable presentation of occupational respiratory disease that might occur in workers in the machining industry.
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20/142. Occupational allergy caused by Peruvian lily (alstroemeria).

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis to alstroemeria has been well documented; however, occupational allergy to this decorative flower has never been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: We describe a florist with complaints of a sense of throat tightness, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, urticaria, and facial angioedema attributable to the handling of this popular flower. methods: An allergy skin testing by the puncture technique and a challenge test are performed in a private office. A staff member is used as a control for the skin testing. Main outcome measures are the subject's clinical symptoms. RESULTS: The allergy skin testing reveals positive response to alstroemeria (Peruvian lily), but negative to Stargazer lily, solidago, and few other flower extracts. In the challenge test, the subject develops conjunctival injection, postnasal drip with nasal congestion, and cough. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a type I allergic reaction to alstroemeria and illustrate the ease of in-office performance of skin testing and challenge to flowering plants.
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