Cases reported "ocular hypertension"

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1/148. ciliary body melanocytoma with anterior segment pigment dispersion and elevated intraocular pressure.

    PURPOSE: To discuss a case in which melanocytoma of the ciliary body presented with widespread pigment dispersion and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). methods: A 64-year old woman presented with increased IOP and persistent anterior segment inflammation in her right eye. She had undergone a trabeculectomy for uncontrolled IOP before presentation. Slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a ciliary body mass with extension into the subconjunctiva in addition to widespread pigmentary dispersion in the anterior segment. Enucleation of the right eye was performed for histopathologic evaluation, as a diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma was made on clinical examination. RESULTS: Histopathologic findings were diagnostic of a melanocytoma of the ciliary body with necrosis and focal malignant transformation with extension of melanocytoma cells and melanophages into the subconjunctival space, trabecular meshwork, and anterior chamber angle. CONCLUSION: Melanocytoma of the ciliary body is a rare intraocular tumor that may present with pigment dispersion and secondary elevated IOP. Careful examination of the anterior segment is imperative in such cases. ( info)

2/148. Cystoid macular edema associated with latanoprost therapy in a case series of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify coexisting ocular diagnoses in a case series of eyes that developed cystoid macular edema (CME) associated with latanoprost therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seven eyes of seven patients who developed CME possibly associated with latanoprost treatment were studied. INTERVENTION: When these patients, all of whom were treated with latanoprost in addition to other glaucoma medications, described blurred vision or eye irritation, ocular examination revealed CME, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Latanoprost was discontinued, and in three cases topical corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents were used to treat the CME. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: visual acuity and intraocular pressure were determined before latanoprost use began, during therapy, and after latanoprost use ceased. In these cases, resolution of CME was documented clinically after discontinuing latanoprost. RESULTS: Clinically significant CME developed after 1 to 11 months of latanoprost treatment, with an average decrease of 3 lines in Snellen visual acuity. intraocular pressure decreased an average of 27.9% during treatment. Cystoid macular edema was confirmed in all cases by fluorescein angiography. In these seven patients, the following coexisting ocular conditions may have placed these eyes at risk for prostaglandin-mediated blood-retinal barrier vascular insufficiency: history of dipivefrin-associated CME, epiretinal membrane, complicated cataract surgery, history of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion, history of anterior uveitis, and diabetes mellitus. In all cases, the macular edema resolved following discontinuation of latanoprost, in some instances with concomitant use of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series of pseudophakic, aphakic, or phakic eyes, the temporal relationships between the use of latanoprost and developing CME, and the resolution of CME following cessation of the drug, suggest an association between latanoprost and CME. In all cases, coexisting ocular conditions associated with an altered blood-retinal barrier were present. ( info)

3/148. Benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from the palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland associated with elevated intraocular pressure.

    A 46-year-old man complained of a painless mass in the left upper eyelid. At age 51 years, the patient complained of dull pain in the left eye and diplopia. His left intraocular pressure had increased to 33 mm Hg. No proptosis was noted. The nontender mass in the eyelid was palpable. Computed tomography showed a mass anterior to the orbital rim compressing the globe. The lesion was removed en bloc by a transconjunctival approach. Histopathologic examination of the excised mass showed myxomatous stroma and highly cellular epithelial areas. Postoperatively, the left intraocular pressure normalized. To our knowledge, benign pleomorphic adenomas arising from the palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland associated with elevated intraocular pressure, as demonstrated in our patient, may be rare. ( info)

4/148. Apparent central nervous system depression in infants after the use of topical brimonidine.

    PURPOSE: To report two cases in which topical brimonidine resulted in apparent central nervous system depression and unresponsiveness in an infant. methods: review of two patients. An 11-day-old infant became lethargic and apneic after a single drop of brimonidine. These symptoms were reproduced after a second administration of brimonidine. A 5-month-old infant became lethargic and poorly responsive after receiving 1 drop of brimonidine in each eye. RESULTS: The first patient required admission to the hospital for medical stabilization. He recovered without sequelae. The second patient recovered spontaneously approximately 2.5 hours after administration of brimonidine. CONCLUSIONS: Topical brimonidine may be associated with central nervous system depression in infants. The use of brimonidine is not recommended in these patients until further data are available. ( info)

5/148. Increased intraocular pressure and visual field defects in high resistance wind instrument players.

    OBJECTIVE: In this twofold study, part 1 aimed to determine whether the playing of high resistance wind instruments elevates intraocular pressure (IOP) and if so, to investigate the mechanism of IOP elevation and whether its magnitude differs while playing high resistance versus low resistance instruments. The purpose of part 2 was to evaluate whether high resistance players have a greater incidence of glaucomatous changes than other musicians. DESIGN: Three case reports and a cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Two players of high resistance instruments and one player of high and low resistance wind instruments participated in part 1 of the study. Nine high resistance wind players, 12 low resistance wind players, and 24 nonwind players were recruited among professional musicians in the boston area to participate in part 2. INTERVENTION: In part 1, IOP and uveal thickness changes were measured by pneumatonometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy in two participants playing their high resistance wind instruments (trumpet and oboe) and in a third participant playing both high (trumpet) and low (clarinet and saxaphone) resistance instruments. Each musician in part 2 underwent medical and musical history, measurement of IOP, Humphrey visual field testing, slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and dilated examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: intraocular pressure and uveal thickness changes, and visual field loss and optic nerve head appearance were the main parameters measured in part 1 and part 2, respectively. RESULTS: In part 1, pneumatonometry showed IOP elevation dependent on the force of blowing, and ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed uveal thickening associated with IOP elevation. The magnitude of IOP elevation was dependent on the amount of expiratory resistance provided by the particular instrument. Part 2 showed that life hours of high resistance wind instrument playing had a significant relationship to abnormal visual field (P = 0.03) and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) scores (P = 0.007) in univariate logistic regression and univariate linear regression, respectively. A 0.011-unit increase in CPSD for each 1000 life hours of high resistance wind playing was found. CONCLUSIONS: High and low resistance wind musicians experience a transient rise in their IOP while playing their instruments as a result least in part of uveal engorgement. The magnitude of IOP increase is greater in high resistance wind players versus low resistance wind players. High resistance wind musicians had a small but significantly greater incidence of visual field loss (abnormal fields and increased CPSD scores) than other musicians, which was related to life hours of playing. The cumulative effects of long-term intermittent IOP elevation during high resistance wind instrument playing may result in glaucomatous damage, which could be misdiagnosed as normal-tension glaucoma. ( info)

6/148. Postoperative intraocular pressure elevation after the use of Healon GV in pediatric cataract surgery.

    intraocular pressure elevation after the use of viscoelastic agents in uncomplicated cataract surgery has been well documented in adults. However, pediatric patients are thought to clear residual viscoelastic agents from the anterior chamber more easily than adults, presumably because of healthier trabecular meshwork. (1) We report on a series of 4 eyes of 4 children with previously normal intraocular pressure who underwent cataract extraction with primary (3 patients) or secondary (1 patient) intraocular lens implantation with Healon GV, which was complicated by marked postoperative intraocular pressure elevation (greater than 30 mm Hg). The patients, aged 5 to 14 years, had an intraocular pressure ranging from 34 to 50 mm Hg with Tonopen or applanation tonometry 1 day, postoperatively associated with nausea, eye pain, and microcystic corneal edema. Viscoelastic material was not entirely removed during surgery. Each of these cases occurred after a change in our preferred viscoelastic agent from one with less viscosity to Healon GV. Medical management controlled the elevated intraocular pressure in all cases without affecting the visual outcome. However, 1 patient with intractable nausea and vomiting required hospitalization for rehydration. With meticulous removal of all viscoelastic material at the completion of surgery, we have not documented any additional cases of postoperative pressure elevation. ( info)

7/148. Bilateral glaucomatocyclitic crisis in a patient with Holmes adie syndrome.

    A patient with pre-existing bilateral tonic pupils presented with simultaneous bilateral glaucomatocyclitic crisis. Deep tendon reflexes were absent although they were documented to be present 6 years ago. A possibility of a progressive autonomic dysfunction in both these conditions is discussed. ( info)

8/148. Markedly increased unilateral intraocular pressure during hemodialysis in a patient with ipsilateral exfoliative glaucoma.

    PURPOSE: To report a man with markedly increased intraocular pressure in a unilateral exfoliated eye during hemodialysis. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 75-year-old man with unilateral exfoliative glaucoma complained of blurred vision in his right eye during hemodialysis. The blurred vision always occurred during hemodialysis, and the intraocular pressure was increased during hemodialysis. The average increase in intraocular pressure during hemodialysis in the right eye was 22.5 mm Hg, and the intraocular pressure in the left eye remained in the normal range during hemodialysis. argon laser trabeculoplasty was performed on the right eye, and a decrease in intraocular pressure was attained. CONCLUSION: physicians must be alert to intraocular pressure increases in these eyes during hemodialysis. ( info)

9/148. Prevention of intraocular pressure elevations during hemodialysis.

    intraocular pressure (IOP) may rise during hemodialysis sessions in predisposed patients because of a rapid drop in osmolality at the blood compartment. A patient with diabetes had painful ocular episodes during hemodialysis that were associated with an IOP increase. We modified the dialysis parameters to prevent a rapid decrease in osmolality by creating conductivity and ultrafiltration profiles and adding a colloid solution at the beginning of the procedure. After instituting these changes, the patient became asymptomatic and did not have variations in IOP during the dialysis sessions. ( info)

10/148. zoster sine herpete with bilateral ocular involvement.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of zoster sine herpete with bilateral ocular involvement. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 65-year-old man showed bilateral iridocyclitis with sectoral iris atrophy and elevated intraocular pressure unresponsive to steroid treatment. No cutaneous eruption was manifest on the forehead. A target region of varicella-zoster virus dna sequence was amplified from the aqueous sample from the left eye by polymerase chain reaction. Bilateral iridocyclitis resolved promptly after initiation of systemic and topical acyclovir treatment. Secondary glaucoma was well controlled by bilateral trabeculectomy. CONCLUSIONS: zoster sine herpete should be considered and polymerase chain reaction performed on an aqueous sample to detect varicella-zoster virus dna for rapid diagnosis whenever anterior uveitis accompanies the characteristic iris atrophy, even in the case of bilateral involvement. ( info)
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