Cases reported "Oculomotor Nerve Diseases"

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1/20. Medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle in combined third and fourth nerve palsy.

    Surgical treatment of combined third and fourth nerve palsy is a challenging problem in strabismology. Five of the 6 extraocular muscles are paralyzed, which leaves the lateral rectus muscle with no antagonist to counteract its activity and usually results in a maximal exotropia. The goal of surgery is to achieve orthophoria in primary position with limited ductions. Because some believe that a conventional recession-resection procedure will inevitably result in a drift back to exotropia,(1) several other methods have been proposed to treat this disorder. These include temporal mattress suture,(2) eye muscle prosthesis, (3,4) splitting and reattaching the lateral rectus muscle near the vortex veins,(5) and fixation of the eye with fascia lata.(6) Taylor(7) suggested using medial transposition of the lateral rectus muscle in a case of isolated third nerve palsy. We report the outcome of a procedure that included such a transposition for the treatment of combined third and fourth nerve palsy.
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keywords = exotropia
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2/20. Myectomy of lateral rectus muscle for third nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To introduce myectomy of the lateral rectus muscle for correcting exotropia in patients with third nerve palsy. methods: The lateral rectus muscle of the paretic eye was myectomized without suturing it to the globe. This was combined with a medial rectus muscle resection and a contralateral lateral rectus muscle recession. magnetic resonance imaging was performed to observe the re-attachment of the lateral rectus muscle to the globe. RESULTS: The patient was able to fuse in the primary position without any noticeable limitation in abduction. magnetic resonance imaging showed that the lateral rectus muscle was attached to the globe through fibrous tissue. CONCLUSION: Myectomy of the lateral rectus muscle is an effective and simple procedure to accomplish a super-maximal weakening effect of abduction in patients with complete third nerve palsy.
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keywords = exotropia
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3/20. Unilateral congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, optic nerve hypoplasia and pituitary malformation: a preliminary report.

    A newborn male presented with complete external third nerve palsy of his right eye immediately at birth. Pediatric examination and MRI of the skull revealed no abnormalities. At the age of six weeks, strabismus surgery was performed to facilitate amblyopia treatment. The muscles appeared small and fibrotic. At the age of ten weeks, a brow suspension of the upper lid and a second strabismus surgery were performed. The amblyopia treatment and patching, applied for half of the waking hours over a period of six weeks, were unsuccessful. At the age of six months, a relative pallor of the right optic nerve head became evident. At the age of three years, at a new examination because of growth deficiency, a second MRI revealed defects involving the pituitary region. We concluded that extraocular muscle abnormality or oculomotor nerve palsy was present together with optic nerve dysplasia and pituitary gland malformation.
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ranking = 0.1476432658133
keywords = strabismus
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4/20. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension with unique strabismus due to third and fourth cranial neuropathies.

    PURPOSE: To report an atypical case of Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) with bilateral trochlear nerve palsies and an oculomotor nerve palsy. DESIGN & METHOD: Case report and literature review. RESULTS (CASE REPORT): A 42 year old man was treated for SIH. His neurological symptoms resolved following neurosurgical treatment with the exception of diplopia due to bilateral trochlear nerve palsies and a pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy. The cranial nerve palsies are believed to be secondary to brainstem ischemia and compression occurring during the acute phase of events. They did not spontaneously improve, but were treated successfully with eye muscle surgery. CONCLUSION: SIH is a rare disease that has been associated with a variety of symptoms and signs including cranial neuropathies. A diagnosis of SIH should be considered in a patient presenting with headache, diplopia secondary to cranial neuropathy and typical radiologic features. This is the first reported case in which bilateral trochlear nerve paresis has been reported in association with this condition.
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ranking = 0.2952865316266
keywords = strabismus
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5/20. Ocular neuromyotonia: a case report.

    Ocular neuromyotonia is a rare clinical entity, which is characterized by spontaneous spasm of ocular muscles resulting in paroxysmal diplopia and strabismus. Inappropriate discharges from ocular motor neurons or axons with unstable cell membranes may cause the sustained contraction of their respective ocular muscles. In most cases, ocular neuromyotonia resulted from radiation therapy to the parasellar and sellar regions or compressive lesions on ocular motor nerves. Among 30 patients reported in the literatur only six patients were accepted as idiopathic. Here, we reported a patient with third nerve myotonia representing with spells of diplopia. No lesion was found and she was accepted as idiopathic ocular neuromyotonia.
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ranking = 0.073821632906651
keywords = strabismus
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6/20. adult-onset acquired oculomotor nerve paresis with cyclic spasms: relationship to ocular neuromyotonia.

    PURPOSE: To describe the characteristics and significance of acquired oculomotor nerve paresis with cyclic spasm. METHOD: Retrospective case series of two patients with a history of previous skull base irradiation for intracranial tumor who developed double vision and were found to have oculomotor nerve paresis with cyclic spasm. Both patients underwent a complete neuroophthalmologic assessment, including testing of eyelid position, pupillary size and reactivity, and ocular motility and alignment during both the paretic and spastic phases of the condition. RESULTS: Both patients developed unilateral lid retraction and ipsilateral esotropia with limitation of abduction during the spastic phase of the cycle, with ipsilateral ptosis, exotropia, and variable limitation of adduction during the paretic phase. The cycles were continuous and were not induced or altered by eccentric gaze. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic oculomotor nerve paresis with spasms may occur years after irradiation of the skull base. This condition is different from the more common ocular motor disturbance that occurs in this setting-ocular neuromyotonia. However, in view of the similarity between these two disorders, it seems likely that they are caused by a similar peripheral mechanism.
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keywords = exotropia
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7/20. Selective and sequential therapy of oculomotor and palpebral sequelae resulting from biopsy of dorsal midbrain sarcoidosis.

    BACKGROUND: biopsy of a dorsal mesencephalon lesion often leads to neuro-ophthalmological complications, namely dorsal mesencephalic syndrome, skew deviation, IV (th) palsy, or Horner's syndrome. history AND SIGNS: A 26-year-old man underwent a biopsy of the quadrigeminal plate for a lesion which revealed to be neurosarcoidosis. Post-operative complications included a left homonymous hemianopia, a left III (rd) nucleus palsy, a bilateral IV (th) palsy and a bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Palpebral fissures were narrowed to 2 mm on both sides. In primary gaze there was 24 degrees of exotropia, 17 degrees of right hypertropia and 30 degrees of exyclorotation. THERAPY AND OUTCOME: After 24 months of stable evolution, three oculomotor surgical procedures were performed including: surgery on both horizontal muscles of the left eye; shortening of both superior oblique muscles; resection of the right lateral rectus muscle, and posterior fixation of an inferior rectus muscle. Bilateral brow suspension on the frontal muscle of both superior eyelids was then performed. Evolution was favorable with a binocular single field of vision measuring 17 degrees horizontally and 20 degrees vertically centered on the primary gaze. Palpebral fissures measured 7 to 8 mm in primary gaze. CONCLUSIONS: The neuro-ophthalmological sequelae which followed the biopsy of a neurosarcoidosis lesion of the quadrigeminal plate were so severe that this patient was completely handicapped. A four-step surgery correcting the horizontal, torsional, vertical components, then the bilateral ptosis allowed the patient to recover both a satisfying function and esthetical aspect.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = exotropia
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8/20. A new surgical technique for ocular fixation in congenital third nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To present a new technique of ocular fixation to restore and maintain the ocular alignment in primary position for patients with total third nerve paralysis. METHOD: We fixated the globe (medial rectus muscle insertion) to the medial palpebral ligament insertion at the anterior lacrimal crest by using nonabsorbable 5-0 polyester sutures in a prospective study of 5 patients (5 eyes) with congenital total third nerve paralysis. A large recession of the lateral rectus muscle (12 to 16 mm) was also performed in four patients. RESULTS: Four patients achieved satisfactory ocular alignment and one patient had residual exotropia. After an initial exotropic shift, no significant change in ocular alignment was observed during the follow-up period of 6 to 9 months. Mild fullness and congestion over the medial rectus muscle area was observed in the immediate postoperative period in all the patients, which resolved in about two months time. CONCLUSION: This technique of ocular fixation is easy, safe, and effective for the management of exotropia secondary to total third nerve paralysis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = exotropia
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9/20. Rectus muscle orbital wall fixation: a reversible profound weakening procedure.

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of third nerve palsy, sensory exotropia and strabismus secondary to anomalous innervation of the rectus muscles, frequently require large rectus muscle recessions in an attempt to maintain alignment in the primary position and reduce the effects of misinnervation. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the results of inactivation of a rectus muscle by its attachment to the adjacent orbital wall. methods: Seven subjects diagnosed with third-nerve palsy (three cases), Duane syndrome (two cases), sensory exotropia (one case), and congenital aberrant innervation of vertical rectus muscles (one case) underwent rectus muscle inactivation by orbital wall fixation. The rectus muscle was disinserted from the globe and reattached to the adjacent orbital periosteum using non-absorbable sutures. This surgery was performed on the lateral rectus muscle in six subjects, and surgery was performed on both ipsilateral vertical rectus muscles in one. RESULTS: Postoperatively four of six patients were aligned within 12 prism diopters of orthotropia in primary position. All patients had improvement of the anomalous head posture. In Duane syndrome, lateral rectus inactivation markedly reduced co-contraction and globe retraction. No overcorrections resulted. CONCLUSION: A rectus muscle may be functionally inactivated when its insertion is attached to the orbital periosteum. Advantages of this procedure over extirpation and free tenotomy include permanent disinsertion of the muscle from globe and reversibility.
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ranking = 1.0738216329067
keywords = exotropia, strabismus
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10/20. An adjustable medial orbital wall suture for third nerve palsy.

    A 16-year-old girl presented with a large-angle exotropia due to congenital third nerve palsy. She had undergone recession/resection surgery as a child. A nasal transposition of the superior oblique and the lateral rectus produced some improvement but the result was still cosmetically unacceptable. Subsequent surgery to permanently secure the globe to the medial orbital wall using an intraoperatively adjustable nonabsorbable traction suture produced a satisfactory outcome.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = exotropia
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