Cases reported "Oculomotor Nerve Diseases"

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1/285. Surgically created fourth-third cranial nerve communication: temporary success in a child with bilateral third nerve hamartomas. Case report.

    Shortly after birth, an otherwise healthy infant developed eye deviation and ptosis due to a hamartomatous lesion of the interpeduncular segment of the right oculomotor nerve. The left nerve became similarly involved when the child was 1.5 years of age. Direct nerve repair was not possible. Instead, the trochlear nerve was divided and its proximal end was attached to the distal end of the third nerve. Elevation of the upper eyelid and partial adduction of the eye developed gradually over the ensuing 3 to 5 months. Both functions were lost after an additional 2 months, presumably as a result of tumor recurrence or neuroma formation. This case report shows that surgically created fourth-third cranial nerve communication is feasible and may merit consideration under similar circumstances. ( info)

2/285. Inferior division third nerve paresis from an orbital dural arteriovenous malformation.

    Isolated inferior division third nerve palsies are rare. The authors report a patient with an isolated, pupil-involving inferior division third cranial nerve palsy from an intraorbital dural arteriovenous malformation. Despite spontaneous thrombosis of the malformation, the third nerve palsy persisted. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of an inferior division third nerve palsy caused by an orbital dural arteriovenous malformation. ( info)

3/285. Transient oculomotor cranial nerves palsy in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    Transient sixth cranial nerves palsy may occur in rare cases after lumbar puncture, spinal anesthesia and myelography as well as in more rare cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. We report three cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension with sixth cranial nerves palsy. One of these patients presented also third cranial nerve palsy, never reported in spontaneous intracranial hypotension. ( info)

4/285. Surgical treatment of paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve.

    BACKGROUND: paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve is relatively rare. Little has been written about its surgical treatment. methods: Five patients with paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve were treated with transposition of the superior rectus muscle toward the insertion of the medial rectus muscle, transposition of the lateral rectus muscle toward the insertion of the inferior rectus muscle, and tenotomy of the superior oblique tendon in the affected eye. RESULTS: All 5 patients had a satisfactory outcome. They were free of diplopia in the primary position as of their last examination. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 10 years after surgery. CONCLUSION: paralysis of the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve can be adequately treated by simultaneous transposition of the superior rectus muscle toward the insertion of the medial rectus muscle, transposition of the lateral rectus muscle toward the insertion of the inferior rectus muscle, and tenotomy of the superior oblique tendon in the affected eye. ( info)

5/285. Painful oculomotor nerve palsy - A presenting sign of internal carotid artery stenosis.

    We report a 72-year-old patient presenting acute painful partial left IIIrd nerve palsy with pupillary involvement. Due to the patient's age and mild hyperlipidemia a microangiopathic ischemic origin was assumed after a compressive or inflammatory cause had been excluded by magnetic resonance imaging, blood and cerebrospinal fluid analyses. Carotid ultrasound examination disclosed a high-grade stenosis of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA). In the absence of diabetes mellitus, other significant vascular risk factors and leukoencephalopathy indicative of advanced arteriosclerotic disease, we suggest a pathogenetic role of the ICA stenosis in ischemic IIIrd nerve palsy. The frequency of a IIIrd nerve palsy as the presenting symptom in patients with ICA stenosis as well as the frequency of an ICA stenosis being the cause in patients with isolated IIIrd nerve palsy is not well documented in the literature. Both seem to be rare but may be underestimated. We advocate cervicocerebral ultrasound examination in patients presenting IIIrd nerve palsy with no obvious or a presumed ischemic cause. ( info)

6/285. Resolution of third nerve paresis after endovascular management of aneurysms of the posterior communicating artery.

    The effect of endovascular treatment on the recovery of neural function in patients with third nerve palsy caused by an aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery is poorly documented. We report three cases in which third nerve paresis resolved completely within 2 to 3 weeks of endovascular occlusion of a posterior communicating artery aneurysm. ( info)

7/285. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: an unusual presentation of glioblastoma multiforme. Case report and review of the literature.

    The authors present a case of a very unusual clinical presentation of an intra-axial supratentorial glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a 63 year old diabetic female patient presenting with a three week history of left progressive complete oculomotor nerve palsy. CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a left intra-axial mesial temporal glioblastoma multiforme. Operative resection and microscopic examination of a tissue specimen confirmed the diagnosis. The nature of the tumor, the pattern of spread and the postulated mechanisms of such a presentation are discussed. The authors suggest including the diagnosis of GBM in the differential diagnosis of patients with isolated complete oculomotor nerve palsy at the appropriate age group. ( info)

8/285. A case of ocular neuromyotonia with tonic pupil.

    A 48-year old woman with hypertension experienced painful oculomotor nerve palsy. After surgery for a giant aneurysm of the internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus, phasic constrictions of the pupil developed. Two years later, this phenomenon disappeared and was replaced by intermittent involuntary cyclic spasms elevating the ptosed lid. These cyclic lid movements were not elicited with any eye movement or by increased accommodation. The pupil now manifested the pharmacologic features of a tonic pupil. The explanation for this unique case of ocular neuromyotonia is based on a misdirection phenomenon, possibly caused by ephaptic transmission. ( info)

9/285. Disseminated histoplasmosis causing reversible gaze palsy and optic neuropathy.

    Subacute disseminated histoplasmosis is an uncommon entity. Typical neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations are usually secondary to histoplasmomas or encephalitis. A 45-year-old man noted blurred vision while receiving empiric antituberculosis therapy for fever and diffuse granulomatous disease of unknown origin. Vertical-gaze palsy, right horizontal-gaze paresis, and mild right optic neuropathy were found on neuro-ophthalmologic examination. Further questioning revealed a history of frequent contact with fighting cocks from south america. Magnetic resonance images were consistent with multiple hemorrhagic infarcts, areas of inflammation, or both, and cerebral angiography showed changes consistent with vasculitis. A previously obtained biopsy specimen from the duodenum was restained and found to be positive for fungal elements. serum antigen titers for histoplasma capsulatum demonstrated evidence of active infection. This case is a rare example of a supranuclear ocular motility disturbance and optic neuropathy secondary to an occlusive vascular process in a patient with subacute disseminated histoplasmosis. ( info)

10/285. Superior branch palsy of the oculomotor nerve caused by acute sphenoid sinusitis.

    A 52-year-old man presented with unilateral headache for 6 days. physical examination revealed an ipsilateral paresis of the superior division of the oculomotor nerve with chemosis. CT scan of the paranasal sinuses showed ipsilateral sphenoid sinusitis with cavernous sinus involvement. The symptoms were completely improved by medical treatment only. ( info)
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