Cases reported "Oculomotor Nerve Diseases"

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11/285. Aggravation of brainstem symptoms caused by a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm after embolization by Guglielmi detachable coils--case report.

    An 81-year-old male presented with right oculomotor nerve paresis and left hemiparesis caused by a mass effect of a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Endovascular treatment was performed using Guglielmi detachable coils. The patient subsequently suffered aggravation of the mass effect 3 weeks after the embolization. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion was performed, which decreased the cerebral edema surrounding the aneurysm, but his neurological symptoms did not improve. Parent artery occlusion is recommended as the first choice of treatment for an unclippable large or giant aneurysm causing a mass effect on the brainstem. ( info)

12/285. Unusual cranial nerve palsy caused by cavernous sinus aneurysms. Clinical and anatomical considerations reviewed.

    BACKGROUND: Two cases of intracavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm with unusual clinical findings are reported. The pathomechanism and clinical significance are discussed. CASE DESCRIPTION: The first patient was a 49-year-old woman who presented with 6th nerve palsy and Horner's syndrome caused by a posteriorly located intracavernous aneurysm. The symptoms improved gradually in proportion to the size of the aneurysm. The second patient was a 69-year-old woman with isolated oculomotor superior division palsy caused by an anteriorly located large aneurysm. CONCLUSION: In the first case, a local aneurysmal compression at both the 6th nerve and the sympathetic fibers sent from the plexus on the intracavernous internal carotid artery is the most probable explanation. In the second case, the aneurysm might have selectively compressed the superior division of the oculomotor nerve at the anterior cavernous sinus. Clinical recognition of these syndromes results in a better diagnostic orientation. The authors discuss the pertinent anatomy and pathophysiology of the lesions because these findings are rarely seen clinically or in the literature. ( info)

13/285. Weber's syndrome secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    BACKGROUND: Since a large intracranial hemorrhage is a space-occupying mass, it may cause the brain to shift, resulting in neurologic deficits both at the location of the bleeding and at a site distal to the hemorrhage. A parietal lobe hemorrhage may push the brain downward, causing the uncus of the temporal lobe to herniate through the tentorial notch, compressing the midbrain. The signs of parietal lobe damage, uncal herniation, and several midbrain syndromes that effect ocular motility are discussed. CASE REPORT: A 66-year-old Hispanic man came to us with a history of a subarachnoid hemorrhage that involved the right parietal lobe. Several signs of damage to both the right parietal lobe and midbrain were evident, including an ipsilateral third nerve paresis with contralateral hemiplegia, Weber's syndrome. CONCLUSION: A patient who survives a subarachnoid hemorrhage may demonstrate permanent residual neurologic deficits subsequent to the acute event. The presentation is particularly complex when the hemorrhage is large and damage occurs at multiple locations. Damage at the level of the midbrain is evident when the findings include Weber's syndrome, which is one of several syndromes that involves the oculomotor nerve. ( info)

14/285. Double vision in a child.

    A 10-year-old boy presented with a complete left oculomotor cranial nerve palsy. Diagnostic evaluation, including neuroimaging and cerebral angiography revealed a small intracranial aneurysm compressing the third nerve. Neurosurgical clipping of the aneurysm produced resolution of the third nerve palsy. The rarity of this presentation in a young patient is discussed, along with the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment. ( info)

15/285. Bilateral chronic subdural hematomas resulting in unilateral oculomotor nerve paresis and brain stem symptoms after operation--case report.

    An 85-year-old male presented with bilateral chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) resulting in unilateral oculomotor nerve paresis and brainstem symptoms immediately after removal of both hematomas in a single operation. Initial computed tomography on admission demonstrated marked thick bilateral hematomas buckling the brain parenchyma with a minimal midline shift. Almost simultaneous removal of the hematomas was performed with the left side was decompressed first with a time difference of at most 2 minutes. However, the patient developed right oculomotor nerve paresis, left hemiparesis, and consciousness disturbance after the operation. The relatively marked increase in pressure on the right side may have caused transient unilateral brain stem compression and herniation of unilateral medial temporal lobe during the short time between the right and left procedures. Another factor was the vulnerability of the oculomotor nerve resulting from posterior replacement of the brain stem and stretching of the oculomotor nerves as seen on sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images. Axial MR images obtained at the same time demonstrated medial deflection of the distal oculomotor nerve after crossing the posterior cerebral artery, which indicates previous transient compression of the nerve and the brain stem. Gradual and symmetrical decompression without time lag is recommended for the treatment of huge bilateral CSDHs. ( info)

16/285. Schwannoma of the oculomotor nerve: a case report with consideration of the surgical treatment.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Oculomotor schwannoma is extremely rare. We report a case of oculomotor schwannoma with consideration of its surgical management. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old woman with a history of chronic headache underwent a computed tomographic scan, which revealed a mass lesion in the right prepontine cistern. She had no neurological deficits at admission. INTERVENTION: The tumor originated from the right oculomotor nerve. It was subtotally removed, leaving a tiny part attached to the nerve. The nerve trunk was preserved. A pathological examination revealed a schwannoma. Transient right oculomotor nerve palsy occurred postoperatively, but it improved almost completely. CONCLUSION: The tumor in the present case was resected, preserving serviceable oculomotor function. However, among 16 patients reported in the literature, all but one developed or maintained severe postsurgical oculomotor nerve palsy. We conclude that surgical resection generally is not indicated for oculomotor schwannomas, excluding large tumors that cause intractable symptoms. ( info)

17/285. oculomotor nerve schwannoma associated with ophthalmoplegic migraine.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with an oculomotor nerve schwannoma who had symptoms of ophthalmoplegic migraine. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 23-year-old woman had a history of recurrent headache accompanied by transient right oculomotor palsy since age 7 years. ophthalmoplegic migraine was diagnosed. She was subsequently found to have a structural lesion of her right oculomotor nerve on magnetic resonance imaging. The magnetic resonance image characteristics were consistent with schwannoma originating from the oculomotor nerve. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates that an intrinsic lesion of the oculomotor nerve (schwannoma) may be associated with a painful relapsing-remitting oculomotor palsy mimicking the clinical syndrome of ophthalmoplegic migraine. ( info)

18/285. Intact sensory fusion in a child with divergence paresis caused by a pontine glioma.

    PURPOSE: To describe a child with divergence paresis esotropia caused by a brain tumor with intact sensory and motor fusion. METHOD: Case report. RESULTS: A 9-year-old boy who had one episode of double vision was initially seen with a small, variably present esophoria at near vision, an intermittent 10 prism diopter esotropia at distance, and stereopsis of 80 arc seconds. A magnetic resonance imaging examination disclosed a 4.0 x 4.5-cm pontine glioma. CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists should recognize that the presence of intact sensory and motor fusion in a child with acute, comitant esotropia of the divergence paresis type does not preclude intracranial abnormality. If immediate neuroimaging is deferred, repeated thorough ocular motility examinations are warranted to detect progression. ( info)

19/285. En bloc resection of an intracavernous oculomotor nerve schwannoma and grafting of the oculomotor nerve with sural nerve. Case report and review of the literature.

    A case in which a left oculomotor nerve schwannoma treated by en bloc resection of the lesion and grafting of the oculomotor nerve with sural nerve is presented. Recovery of nerve function was partial, but useful and cosmetically good. The last follow-up examination performed 2 years after surgery revealed recovery of function in the elevator muscle of the upper eyelid, together with slight vertical movement of the eye. ( info)

20/285. Unintentional paediatric subdural catheter with oculomotor and abducens nerve palsies.

    A 13-year-old female with a past history of lumbar laminectomy developed a subdural block 18 h after the commencement of an epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.125% and fentanyl 2 micrograms.ml-1. Signs at presentation included bilateral abducens nerve palsies in the absence of headache and a previously unreported unilateral third cranial nerve palsy. An epidurogram displayed subdural placement. ( info)
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