Cases reported "Olfaction Disorders"

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1/3. Olfactory and gustatory disturbances caused by digitalism: a case report.

    It is known that an overdose of digoxin causes visual disturbance, but the effect on the senses of smell and taste is not known. A case of olfactory and gustatory disturbance caused by digitalism is reported. In a 62-year-old male patient suffering from chronic digitalism, the serum digoxin level rose to 6.0 ng/ml. The patient was diagnosed not only with visual disturbance but also hyposmia and hypogeusia. The patient recovered from visual and chemosensory disturbances after the serum digoxin concentration returned to normal. Because the similarity of intracellular signal transduction between photoreceptor cells and olfactory and/or taste receptor cells is known, it is suspected that the influence of digoxin to chemosensory organs was caused by intermediation of sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) of the chemosensory receptor cells.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hypogeusia
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2/3. Generalized argyrosis in man: neurotological, ultrastructural and X-ray microanalytical findings.

    Generalized argyrosis can produce a number of abnormalities, including skin discoloration, liver and kidney dysfunction. We describe a patient with generalized argyrosis following long-term self-treatment with oral silver intake, in whom skin discoloration, progressive taste and smell disorders, vertigo and hypesthesia were observed. These findings were confirmed by chemosensory tests and electrophysiological investigations. The development of hypogeusia was assessed by subjective tests, while the progression of hyposmia was followed by recording olfactory evoked cortical potentials. light and electron microscopy of tissue samplings demonstrated electron-dense mineral deposits in basal membranes, in macrophages, in the perineurium of peripheral nerves, along elastic and collagenous fibers, and in necrotic cells of the oral submucosa. silver and sulfur deposits in affected tissues could be defined by X-ray microanalysis. The quantitative ratio between silver and sulfur in involved tissues was similar to that of an inorganic silver-sulfide (Ag2S) standard. The minute increase in the sulfur content when compared to the inorganic standard suggested a sulfur containing organic matrix of the tissue precipitates. Our findings indicate that the affinity of silver for membrane and neuronal structures and the deposition of silver as an insoluble compound (Ag2S) induce the progression of clinical disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = hypogeusia
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3/3. Hypoplasia of the nose and eyes, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in two males.

    Two males, 9-11 and 29-31 years of age, with severe hypoplasia of the nose, hypoplasia of the eyes, sensory abnormalities of taste and smell, and hypogonadism were studied. The nasal septum, cribriform plates and foramina of the vomeronasal (vn) nerves were demonstrated in both; the capsule of the vn organ was shown in one. Their nasal skeleton, demonstrated by tomoradiography, had grown in early embryological form. The nose was not patent in either patient. In both, the cranial vaults, orbits, epipharynges, and oral cavities were indented toward the hypoplastic nasal composite and the peripheral dimensions of their faces were normal for their respective ages. Each patient had impaired visual function with cataracts and colobomata. Each was unable to recognize the smell of any vapor (Type I hyposmia), and had severe impairment of recognition of any tastant (recognition hypogeusia); detection of vapors and of tastants were in appropriate anatomical areas. Each was unable orally to recognize standard plastic forms (astereognosis) though each could recognize the forms manually. Each patient had bilateral inguinal hernias, one or two undescended testes, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. These patients do not fall within the spectrum of arrhinencephaly because of the presence of medial structure of attachment of the falx cerebri and because of their normal intelligence. Distinction of patients with this pattern of abnormalities from arrhinencephaly is important by reason of their potentiality of normal mental development. We hypothesize that their abnormalities resulted from an embryological disruption that occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy. The embryogenesis of the nasal composite is presumed to have been adequate for reciprocal induction of the anlagen of the forebrain. Development of their faces to normal peripheral dimensions indicates that the nasal composite is not essential for gross facial enlargement.
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ranking = 5
keywords = hypogeusia
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