Cases reported "Ophthalmoplegia"

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1/547. Schwannoma in patients with isolated unilateral trochlear nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features of patients with isolated unilateral trochlear nerve palsy secondary to imaging-defined schwannoma of the trochlear nerve. methods: A chart review of all patients seen at the Neuro-ophthalmology Unit at Emory University since 1989. Of 221 patients with trochlear nerve palsy, six had a lesion consistent with a trochlear nerve schwannoma. RESULTS: The six patients had isolated unilateral trochlear nerve palsy. Duration of diplopia before diagnosis averaged 6 months. magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated circumscribed, enhancing lesions along the cisternal course of the trochlear nerve, all measuring less than 5 mm in greatest dimension. Five of the patients were seen in follow-up, over periods ranging from 11 to 26 months from initial presentation (mean, 15.6 months; standard deviation, 6.0 months). All of these patients remained stable except one, who was slightly worse at 15 months by clinical measurements and magnetic resonance imaging. None of these patients have developed additional symptoms or signs of cranial nerve or central nervous system involvement. CONCLUSIONS: The differential diagnosis of an isolated unilateral fourth cranial nerve palsy should include an intrinsic neoplasm of the trochlear nerve. magnetic resonance imaging is useful, both for diagnosis and follow-up. These patients can remain stable and may not require neurosurgical intervention.
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keywords = nerve, nervous system
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2/547. Pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as an isolated fourth nerve palsy.

    PURPOSE: To describe an unusual ophthalmic manifestation of a pituitary adenoma. methods: Case report. RESULTS: A 32-year-old man had left supraorbital and frontal headaches and new-onset vertical diplopia. Examination showed a left fourth nerve palsy and increased vertical fusional amplitudes. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a sellar mass consistent with a pituitary macroadenoma. CONCLUSION: A pituitary adenoma may rarely manifest with an isolated fourth nerve palsy.
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ranking = 0.45763252197565
keywords = nerve
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3/547. Fourth cranial nerve palsy in pediatric patients with pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To describe three children with acute fourth cranial nerve palsy secondary to pseudotumor cerebri. methods: We reviewed the medical records of children younger than 18 years who were diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri between 1977 and 1997. pseudotumor cerebri was defined by normal neuro-imaging, elevated intracranial pressure measured by lumbar puncture, and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition. RESULTS: Three children with pseudotumor cerebri presented with vertical diplopia and clinical signs of fourth cranial nerve palsy including a hypertropia of the affected eye, which increased with adduction and ipsilateral head tilt. The fourth cranial nerve palsy resolved after reduction of the intracranial pressure in all three children. CONCLUSIONS: Fourth cranial nerve palsy may occur in children with pseudotumor cerebri and may be a nonspecific sign of elevated intracranial pressure.
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ranking = 0.61017669596753
keywords = nerve
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4/547. Tonic ocular tilt reaction simulating a superior oblique palsy: diagnostic confusion with the 3-step test.

    BACKGROUND: The tonic ocular tilt reaction (OTR) consists of vertical divergence of the eyes (skew deviation), bilateral conjugate ocular torsion, and paradoxical head tilt. The head and superior pole of both eyes are rotated toward the hypotropic eye. OBJECTIVE: To describe ocular motility and torsion findings in 5 patients with OTRs that mimicked superior oblique palsies (SOPs). RESULTS: In 5 patients, results of the 3-step test suggested an SOP (bilateral in 1 patient); however, no patient had the expected excyclotorsion of the hypertropic eye. Two patients had conjugate ocular torsion (intorsion of the hypertropic eye and extorsion of the hypotropic eye), and 2 patients had only intorsion of the hypertropic eye. All had other neurologic features consistent with more widespread brainstem disease. CONCLUSIONS: Vertical ocular deviations that 3-step to an SOP are not always caused by fourth nerve weakness. When a patient with an apparent fourth nerve palsy has ocular torsion that is inconsistent with an SOP, OTR should be suspected, especially if vestibular system or posterior fossa dysfunction coexists. The rules for the 3-step test for an SOP may be fulfilled by damaging the otolithic projections corresponding to projections of the contralateral anterior semicircular canal. Because results of the Bielschowsky head tilt test may be positive in patients with the OTR, the feature distinguishing OTR from an SOP is the direction of torsion. We advocate use of a fourth step-evaluation of ocular torsion-in addition to the standard 3 steps.
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ranking = 0.15254417399188
keywords = nerve
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5/547. Cerebral B-cell lymphoma following treatment for tolosa-hunt syndrome.

    We herein report a unique case of cerebral lymphoma which occurred after lymphocytic neuritis of cranial nerves causing tolosa-hunt syndrome and demonstrate the histological difference between these two diseases. A 70-year-old woman developed a sensory disturbance in the first and third divisions of the left trigeminal nerve and a left ocular movement disturbance five years before death. Although she was clinically diagnosed to have a schwannoma in the left cavernous sinus, a histologic examination verified a diffuse infiltration of T lymphocytes in the left trigeminal ganglion. Corticosteroid therapy was effective. Thereafter she demonstrated a disturbance of consciousness and dysphasia four years after surgery. A T1-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) disclosed high intensity lesions in both the basal ganglia and corpus callosum. She also showed progressive spastic paralysis. At autopsy a diagnosis of primary intracranial B-cell lymphoma was made. Although there was no invasion of the lymphoma cells into the left trigeminal nerves, a mild inflammatory infiltration of T cells still remained.
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ranking = 0.22881626098782
keywords = nerve
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6/547. The diagnosis of congenital unilateral third-nerve palsy.

    Sixteen cases of congenital unilateral third-nerve palsies collected from the records of the Wilmer eye Institute and The Johns Hopkins Hospital over twenty-one years are reviewed. Their aetiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis and prognosis are discussed. Their benign nature with respect to absence of associated neurological disease and the high probability of their causing amblyopia and aberrant regeneration are emphasized.
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ranking = 0.38136043497971
keywords = nerve
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7/547. Tolosa Hunt syndrome: a case report. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    A 36-year-old woman was admitted with a left abducens nerve palsy. MR showed enlargement of the left cavernous sinus. The patient was treated with 80 mg oral methyl prednisolone. Clinical findings improved within a month. Two months later, she was readmitted with left oculomotor and right abducens nerve palsy. MR showed significant increase in the volume of the abnormal area in the left cavernous sinus and a new lesion within the right cavernous sinus. After intravenous gadolinium dtpa, there was enhancement in both cavernous sinuses. Methyl prednisolone therapy was again started. After one month of treatment neurological examination was normal. Follow-up MR findings were similar to previous ones.
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ranking = 0.15254417399188
keywords = nerve
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8/547. Wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia in central nervous system cryptococcosis.

    Only one case of wall-eyed bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO) has been described in central nervous system cryptococcosis. The disorder was initially unilateral, then became bilateral with skew deviation and vertical upgaze deficit. We report a case of WEBINO in central nervous system cryptococcosis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal on T2 images in the right midbrain, left frontal vertex, left splenium, and cerebellum. With treatment, the internuclear ophthalmoplegia improved; however, the convergence insufficiency remained. Disruption of input from cortical supranuclear locations or the region of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus has been proposed as a mechanism in the absence of convergence. This correlates in our patient with the lesions seen on magnetic resonance images.
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ranking = 0.050777214316592
keywords = nervous system
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9/547. Disseminated histoplasmosis causing reversible gaze palsy and optic neuropathy.

    Subacute disseminated histoplasmosis is an uncommon entity. Typical neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations are usually secondary to histoplasmomas or encephalitis. A 45-year-old man noted blurred vision while receiving empiric antituberculosis therapy for fever and diffuse granulomatous disease of unknown origin. Vertical-gaze palsy, right horizontal-gaze paresis, and mild right optic neuropathy were found on neuro-ophthalmologic examination. Further questioning revealed a history of frequent contact with fighting cocks from south america. Magnetic resonance images were consistent with multiple hemorrhagic infarcts, areas of inflammation, or both, and cerebral angiography showed changes consistent with vasculitis. A previously obtained biopsy specimen from the duodenum was restained and found to be positive for fungal elements. serum antigen titers for histoplasma capsulatum demonstrated evidence of active infection. This case is a rare example of a supranuclear ocular motility disturbance and optic neuropathy secondary to an occlusive vascular process in a patient with subacute disseminated histoplasmosis.
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ranking = 0.20545260648507
keywords = neuropathy
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10/547. The criteria of the International headache Society for tolosa-hunt syndrome need to be revised.

    In 1988 the International headache Society defined the diagnostic criteria of tolosa-hunt syndrome (THS) to include episode(s) of unilateral orbital pain for an average of 8 weeks if untreated, with associated paresis of one or more of the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves. Cranial nerve paresis may coincide with the onset of pain or follow it within a period of up to 2 weeks, and the pain must be relieved within 72 h after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy. Other causative lesions must be excluded by neuroimaging. On the basis of the history and neuroradiological findings of six patients we show the pitfalls in diagnosing THS with these criteria. We propose a revision of the criteria: Other causative lesions must be excluded by neuroimaging, especially of the region of the cavernous sinus and the orbita, and by blood and CSF examinations. Since imaging techniques have dramatically improved, it is now possible to visualize the inflammatory tissue in THS. Positive magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings compatible with inflammatory tissue neither exclude nor confirm THS and remain suspect until a malignant tumor or inflammation other than THS is excluded. Clinical and radiological follow-up examinations must be performed for at least 2 years, even in patients with negative findings on magnetic resonance imaging at onset.
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ranking = 0.15254417399188
keywords = nerve
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