Cases reported "Opportunistic Infections"

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1/154. Human herpes-virus 8 seropositive patient with skin and graft Kaposi's sarcoma after lung transplantation.

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has been reported after solid organ transplantation mostly in recipients of renal, liver, heart, and bone allografts. We describe the first case of a patient with lung transplantation who developed KS of the skin, but also of the lung graft. The tumors were localized to places of previous trauma, implying the involvement of a Koebner phenomenon. Moreover, a polymerase chain reaction assay revealed the presence of dna sequences of herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) on tissue of the cutaneous KS. Serological tests showed HHV-8 seronegativity of the graft donor and HHV-8 seropositivity of the patient before lung transplantation suggesting that the latter was already infected before the surgery and that immunosuppression resulted in the development of KS. This case report raises the question of the prevalence of HHV-8 in candidates for transplantation and organ donors, and of the value of an antiviral prophylaxis to lower the risk of KS.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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2/154. Cryptococcoma of the sacrum.

    Cryptococcoma of the sacrum was the initial presentation of systemic cryptococcosis in a patient on chronic steroid therapy for autoimmune hepatitis. The bone lesion was the only overt manifestation of systemic cryptococcal disease, which preceded other clinical manifestations and led to the subsequent diagnosis of systemic infection.
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keywords = bone
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3/154. Fatal disseminated trichoderma longibrachiatum infection in an adult bone marrow transplant patient: species identification and review of the literature.

    trichoderma longibrachiatum was recovered from stool surveillance cultures and a perirectal ulcer biopsy specimen from a 29-year-old male who had received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The amphotericin b (2.0 microgram/ml) and itraconazole (1.0 microgram/ml) MICs for the organism were elevated. Therapy with these agents was unsuccessful, and the patient died on day 58 posttransplantation. At autopsy, histologic sections from the lungs, liver, brain, and intestinal wall showed infiltration by branching septate hyphae. Cultures were positive for trichoderma longibrachiatum. While trichoderma species have been recognized to be pathogenic in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts with increasing frequency, this is the first report of probable acquisition through the gastrointestinal tract. Salient features regarding the identification of molds in the trichoderma longibrachiatum species aggregate are presented.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bone
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4/154. candida dubliniensis candidemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and bone marrow transplantation.

    The recently described species candida dubliniensis has been recovered primarily from superficial oral candidiasis in hiv-infected patients. No clinically documented invasive infections were reported until now in this patient group or in other immunocompromised patients. We report three cases of candidemia due to this newly emerging candida species in hiv-negative patients with chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and bone marrow transplantation.
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keywords = bone
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5/154. coronavirus pneumonia following autologous bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer.

    infectious bronchitis virus, otherwise known as coronavirus, can cause mild upper respiratory tract illnesses in children and adults. Rarely has coronavirus been linked, either by serology or nasal wash, to pneumonia. We report a case of a young woman who, following treatment for stage IIIA breast cancer using a high-dose chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, developed respiratory failure and was found to have coronavirus pneumonia as diagnosed by electron microscopy from BAL fluid. We propose that coronavirus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute respiratory failure in cancer patients who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic support.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bone
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6/154. fusarium infections in patients with severe aplastic anemia: review and implications for management.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of severe fungal infections, such as fusarium infections, in patients with aplastic anemia is directly related to the recovery of bone marrow functions. In this study, in vitro anti-fusarium activity of granulocytes was investigated, the case of disseminated infection in a child with very severe aplastic anemia is reported, and implications for management of such infective complications are discussed. DESIGN AND methods: The in vitro efficiency of PMNL from three untreated, normal blood donors and from two G-CSF-treated WBC donors in contrasting the growth of the fusarium sp strain isolated from the patient we present was measured by a 3H-glucose uptake inhibition assay and confirmed by microscopic examination. RESULTS: Basic growth inhibitory activity of unstimulated PMNL on fusarium cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of GM-CSF in all three blood donors tested. In one of the two G-CSF-treated donors, in vitro efficiency of PMNL in contrasting the growth of the fungus increased notably after G-CSF treatment. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with very severe aplastic anemia unresponsive to conventional immunosuppressant therapy who developed a disseminated fusarium infection. The child initially responded to liposomal amphotericin b and granulocyte transfusions from G-CSF stimulated donors. Subsequently she was given a cord blood stem cell transplantation but died of disseminated infection. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Including the present case, there are only ten reports of invasive infections caused by the genus fusarium in aplastic anemia patients and only two of the patients survived. in vitro data seem to suggest that in vivo treatment with rh-G-CSF could have a stimulatory effect on the anti-fusarium activity of neutrophils. Despite the efficacy of granulocyte transfusions by G-CSF-stimulated donors in the temporary control of fusarium infection, treatment of the underlying hematologic disease is required to cure the infection in patients with severe aplastic anemia. Granulocyte transfusions by G-CSF-stimulated donors while awaiting bone marrow recovery following the blood stem cell transplant should be considered.
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ranking = 2
keywords = bone
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7/154. Combined anti-fungal therapy and surgical resection as treatment of pulmonary zygomycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a rare but severe complication in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report a 49-year-old patient who developed pneumonitis after BMT, due to a mucorales fungus (class Zygomycetes), absidia corymbifera. Infections due to mucormycosis are likely to become increasingly recognized even though the occurrence after BMT has only been described sporadically. We postulate that the patient was contaminated before BMT despite no intensive drug treatment or other iatrogenic features, related to his poor living conditions and developed the infection during aplasia. He immediately received i.v. liposomal amphotericin b (AmBisome) and GM-CSF. Because there was no response, the infected area and necrotic tissue were resected. Despite initial clinical and biological improvement and the absence of Mucor on mycological examination post-surgery, the patient died 3 weeks later from bilateral pulmonary infection and multiorgan failure.
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ranking = 5
keywords = bone
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8/154. Unsuspected pneumocystis carinii pneumonia at presentation of severe primary immunodeficiency.

    BACKGROUND: pneumocystis carinii is an important pathogen in immunodeficiency but may be an unrecognised cause of respiratory compromise. OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the incidence of P carinii pneumonia (PCP) at presentation of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), whether it had been diagnosed, and the effect of treatment on outcome. SETTING: The supraregional paediatric bone marrow transplant unit for primary immunodeficiencies at Newcastle General Hospital. methods: Retrospective case note review of infants referred with a diagnosis of SCID from 1992 to 1998. RESULTS: Ten of 50 infants had PCP at presentation; only one was diagnosed before transfer. Eight were diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage and two by lung biopsy. In only one was P carinii identified in nasopharyngeal secretions. Five required ventilation for respiratory failure but all were successfully treated with co-trimoxazole and methylprednisolone with or without nebulised budesonide. Nine survived to bone marrow transplantation and four are long term survivors after bone marrow transplantation; no deaths were related to PCP. CONCLUSIONS: PCP is a common presenting feature of SCID but is rarely recognised. bronchoalveolar lavage or lung biopsy are needed for diagnosis. Treatment with co-trimoxazole is highly successful.
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ranking = 3
keywords = bone
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9/154. Cryptococcal meningitis in an hiv negative patient with systemic sarcoidosis.

    A case of cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is described in an hiv negative patient with undiagnosed systemic sarcoidosis. The patient presented with signs of meningitis together with generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed on lumbar puncture. She was treated with intravenous amphotericin b but died within two weeks of admission. Necropsy revealed lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, small intestine, and bone marrow consistent with sarcoidosis. Microscopically the lesions contained non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas typical of sarcoidosis. No Schaumann or Hamazaki-Wesenberg bodies were identified. cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is generally associated with immunosuppressive disorders. As T cell abnormalities have been described in sarcoidosis, this could have been a case of opportunistic infection. Although rare, sarcoidosis merits consideration in patients with cryptococcal disease in the absence of hiv infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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10/154. Isolation of rare opportunistic pathogens in hungary: case report and short review of the literature. rhodococcus equi.

    rhodococcus equi is a well-established pathogen in foal pneumonia and is increasingly recognized as a pathogen in immunocompromised humans. We have isolated a Gram-positive coccobacillus from 8 blood samples and lung tissues of a renal transplant patient. Colony morphology, growth in Lowenstein-Jensen medium, 21 biochemical reactions, the characteristic morphological cycle (coccus-rod-coccus) and the CAMP test established the R. equi diagnosis. Histological studies of 2 lung biopsy specimens revealed numerous microabscesses with aggregates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes surrounded by abundant foamy macrophages. Our isolates proved to be sensitive to majority of antibacterial drugs. The appropriate therapy (amoxicillin-clavulanate) proved to be effective, however six months later a relapse was observed. Data show that in spite of its rare occurrence, R. equi infection represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The taxonomical, epidemiological, clinico-pathological, diagnostic and therapeutic data of R. equi are discussed.
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ranking = 13.104987080269
keywords = macrophage
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