Cases reported "Opportunistic Infections"

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1/28. Central line sepsis in a child due to a previously unidentified mycobacterium.

    A rapidly growing mycobacterium similar to strains in the present mycobacterium fortuitum complex (M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum third biovariant complex [sorbitol positive and sorbitol negative]) was isolated from a surgically placed central venous catheter tip and three cultures of blood from a 2-year-old child diagnosed with metastatic hepatoblastoma. The organism's unique phenotypic profile and ribotype patterns differed from those of the type and reference strains of the M. fortuitum complex and indicate that this organism may represent a new pathogenic taxon.
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ranking = 1
keywords = mycobacterium
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2/28. Isolation of rare opportunistic pathogens in hungary: case report and short review of the literature. rhodococcus equi.

    rhodococcus equi is a well-established pathogen in foal pneumonia and is increasingly recognized as a pathogen in immunocompromised humans. We have isolated a Gram-positive coccobacillus from 8 blood samples and lung tissues of a renal transplant patient. Colony morphology, growth in Lowenstein-Jensen medium, 21 biochemical reactions, the characteristic morphological cycle (coccus-rod-coccus) and the CAMP test established the R. equi diagnosis. Histological studies of 2 lung biopsy specimens revealed numerous microabscesses with aggregates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes surrounded by abundant foamy macrophages. Our isolates proved to be sensitive to majority of antibacterial drugs. The appropriate therapy (amoxicillin-clavulanate) proved to be effective, however six months later a relapse was observed. Data show that in spite of its rare occurrence, R. equi infection represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The taxonomical, epidemiological, clinico-pathological, diagnostic and therapeutic data of R. equi are discussed.
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ranking = 0.041307607778318
keywords = bacillus
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3/28. Successful treatment of rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    The rhodococcus is a mycobacterium-like organism which is normally a pathogen in foals. It usually spreads by direct contact or by aerosol from horse faeces and causes pyogranulomatous pulmonary infections. Occasionally, it acts opportunistically to infect immuno-compromised human hosts, most commonly those with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here we report a pulmonary infection by rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient who was successfully treated. The literature on this infection in transplant recipients is also reviewed with respect to manifestations and treatment.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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4/28. stenotrophomonas maltophilia endophthalmitis after intraocular lens implantation.

    BACKGROUND: stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic, gram-negative bacillus. endophthalmitis induced by S. maltophilia has been described in only two cases after intraocular lens implantation. We report S. maltophilia endophthalmitis in two patients with diabetes mellitus after intraocular lens implantation and compare the characteristics of the S. maltophilia-induced endophthalmitis with two previous cases. methods: A 68-year-old woman and a 74-year-old man with diabetes mellitus developed S. maltophilia endophthalmitis within 5 days of intraocular lens implantation. We performed intraocular lens removal and vitrectomy, which resolved the inflammation. No recurrences were found. RESULTS: Cultures grew S. maltophilia in both cases, and one of the organisms was multi-resistant. The final visual acuity was counting fingers and 0.3. The first case revealed a tractional retinal detachment during vitrectomy. CONCLUSIONS: S. maltophilia is a potential opportunistic intraocular pathogen, and the incidence of multiresistant S. maltophilia is increasing. S. maltophilia causes acute endophthalmitis, and its prognosis may not be poor unless the eye has a history of serious disease before the cataract surgery. The combined procedure of intraocular lens removal and vitrectomy was useful in resolving the inflammation and preventing recurrences.
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ranking = 0.041307607778318
keywords = bacillus
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5/28. Restriction of T-cell receptor repertoires in idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia.

    We report that alpha/beta and gamma/delta T-cell repertoires of three patients with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia, who showed different clinical manifestations and outcomes over time, were highly restricted. The disruption of T-cell repertoires does not influence the susceptibility to infections: the first patient was unable to attain a protective response to mycobacterium, the second showed clinical improvement and the third did not develop opportunistic infections. These results indicate that idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia could give rise to mono-/oligoclonal T-cell expansions, but the degree of repertoire disturbance is not indicative of the severity of disease progression.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = mycobacterium
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6/28. A first case of streptococcus bovis bacteremia and peritonitis from endometrial cancer origin.

    BACKGROUND: The most important clinical infections caused by streptococcus bovis are bacteremia and endocarditis. Usually, streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been described in association with bowel pathology. CASE REPORT: A 67-year-old woman with an history of endometrial cancer Ic was admitted with the suspicion of peritonitis at examination. At exploratory laparotomy, a total hysterectomy was performed and the abdomen was drained. histology revealed an uterine adenocarcinoma staged IIIa with intramyometrial cocci accumulation. streptococcus bovis was isolated from the peritoneal fluid cultures and three haemocultures. CONCLUSION: Because we excluded bowel pathology and endocarditis, this is the first case of streptococcus bovis bacteremia from endometrial cancer origin.
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ranking = 0.024698122670775
keywords = bovis
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7/28. lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus sepsis in a patient with ulcerative colitis.

    Lactobacillus species are part of normal gastrointestinal flora and are an uncommon cause of bacteremia. lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus was repeatedly isolated in the blood cultures of a 43-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis. Lactobacillus spp. could be considered a potential opportunistic pathogen whenever there is disruption of the physiologic architecture of the intestinal mucosa, such as in abdominal surgery, endoscopic procedures, or enteric pathologies. Clinicians and clinical microbiologists need to be aware of this infective complication in patients with ulcerative colitis.
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ranking = 0.28915325444823
keywords = bacillus
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8/28. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients?

    A fatal case of lactobacillus rhamnosus septicaemia after prolonged oral vancomycin for recalcitrant clostridium difficile infection is reported. The patient was immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and steroids for sjogren's syndrome. The administration of Lactobacillus spp as "biotherapy" may be hazardous in such circumstances.
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ranking = 0.082615215556636
keywords = bacillus
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9/28. A young female patient with anorexia nervosa complicated by Mycobacterium szulgai pulmonary infection.

    OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary infection with a rare atypical mycobacterium, Mycobacterium szulgai, was discovered during the treatment of anorexia nervosa in a 21-year-old Japanese woman without preexisting pulmonary disease. She had a long history of low body weight below 35 kg. methods: On admission, she was examined. She weighed 23 kg and presented with hypoproteinemia, decreased levels of rapid turnover proteins, liver dysfunction, and decreased serum level of insulin-like growth factor-I. RESULTS: Although she had had neither clinical symptom specific for mycobacterium pulmonary infection nor inflammatory data, a chest roentgenogram showed an infiltrative shadow with cavity formation in the right upper lung field. Isolated bacteria from sputum was acid-fast bacilli and identified as M. szulgai using the dna-dna hybridization method. DISCUSSION: In anorexia nervosa patients with a long history of severe malnutrition, special attention must be paid to the possibility of opportunistic infections, even in the absence of symptoms or inflammatory data.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = mycobacterium
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10/28. Disseminated cutaneous infection with mycobacterium chelonae in a patient with steroid-dependent rheumatoid arthritis.

    mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing atypical mycobacterium that is a normal commensal of water and soil. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and fibrosing alveolitis on long-term prednisolone who presented with a number of tender, red, subcutaneous nodules on his upper arms and a pustule on his left cheek. Histopathologic examination revealed dense neutrophilic collections within the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat with abscess formation. Long filamentous organisms were seen within these collections and were subsequently identified by special stains and PCR as mycobacterium chelonae. Treatment was not possible as the patient developed bacteria bronchopneumonia before identification of the organism and he subsequently died. Post-mortem revealed no extra-cutaneous evidence of mycobacterium infection.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = mycobacterium
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