Cases reported "Opportunistic Infections"

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1/25. Pseudogaucher cells in cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection: report of a case.

    We report on a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and with cutaneous mycobacterium avium intracellulare, in whom many cells with abundant reticulated cytoplasm resembling the characteristic cells of Gauchers disease ("pseudogaucher cells") were noted within the dermal infiltrate on biopsy. Although pseudogaucher cells have been reported in association with M. avium intracellulare infection in extracutaneous sites, this is, to our knowledge, the first report of cutaneous pseudogaucher cells in the skin.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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2/25. Central line sepsis in a child due to a previously unidentified mycobacterium.

    A rapidly growing mycobacterium similar to strains in the present mycobacterium fortuitum complex (M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and M. fortuitum third biovariant complex [sorbitol positive and sorbitol negative]) was isolated from a surgically placed central venous catheter tip and three cultures of blood from a 2-year-old child diagnosed with metastatic hepatoblastoma. The organism's unique phenotypic profile and ribotype patterns differed from those of the type and reference strains of the M. fortuitum complex and indicate that this organism may represent a new pathogenic taxon.
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ranking = 3.9526377949501
keywords = mycobacterium
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3/25. Successful treatment of rhodococcus equi pulmonary infection in a renal transplant recipient.

    The rhodococcus is a mycobacterium-like organism which is normally a pathogen in foals. It usually spreads by direct contact or by aerosol from horse faeces and causes pyogranulomatous pulmonary infections. Occasionally, it acts opportunistically to infect immuno-compromised human hosts, most commonly those with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Here we report a pulmonary infection by rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient who was successfully treated. The literature on this infection in transplant recipients is also reviewed with respect to manifestations and treatment.
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ranking = 0.79052755899002
keywords = mycobacterium
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4/25. Restriction of T-cell receptor repertoires in idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia.

    We report that alpha/beta and gamma/delta T-cell repertoires of three patients with idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia, who showed different clinical manifestations and outcomes over time, were highly restricted. The disruption of T-cell repertoires does not influence the susceptibility to infections: the first patient was unable to attain a protective response to mycobacterium, the second showed clinical improvement and the third did not develop opportunistic infections. These results indicate that idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia could give rise to mono-/oligoclonal T-cell expansions, but the degree of repertoire disturbance is not indicative of the severity of disease progression.
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ranking = 0.79052755899002
keywords = mycobacterium
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5/25. mycobacterium avium intracellulare otitis media.

    Atypical mycobacterial infections of the middle ear are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only eight cases have been reported in the literature, five of which involve mycobacterium avium intracellulare. We present a case of culture-proven, M. avium intracellulare otomastoiditis in an 8-year-old boy with common variable immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient clinically presented with pain and otorrhea. The histopathology was marked by acid-fast bacilli-laden histiocytes. Consideration of this entity in the differential diagnosis of chronic, recalcitrant otorrhea can lead to timely diagnosis, treatment, an decreased morbidity.
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ranking = 1
keywords = avium
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6/25. A young female patient with anorexia nervosa complicated by Mycobacterium szulgai pulmonary infection.

    OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary infection with a rare atypical mycobacterium, Mycobacterium szulgai, was discovered during the treatment of anorexia nervosa in a 21-year-old Japanese woman without preexisting pulmonary disease. She had a long history of low body weight below 35 kg. methods: On admission, she was examined. She weighed 23 kg and presented with hypoproteinemia, decreased levels of rapid turnover proteins, liver dysfunction, and decreased serum level of insulin-like growth factor-I. RESULTS: Although she had had neither clinical symptom specific for mycobacterium pulmonary infection nor inflammatory data, a chest roentgenogram showed an infiltrative shadow with cavity formation in the right upper lung field. Isolated bacteria from sputum was acid-fast bacilli and identified as M. szulgai using the dna-dna hybridization method. DISCUSSION: In anorexia nervosa patients with a long history of severe malnutrition, special attention must be paid to the possibility of opportunistic infections, even in the absence of symptoms or inflammatory data.
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ranking = 1.58105511798
keywords = mycobacterium
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7/25. Disseminated cutaneous infection with mycobacterium chelonae in a patient with steroid-dependent rheumatoid arthritis.

    mycobacterium chelonae is a rapidly growing atypical mycobacterium that is a normal commensal of water and soil. We report a case of a 61-year-old man with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and fibrosing alveolitis on long-term prednisolone who presented with a number of tender, red, subcutaneous nodules on his upper arms and a pustule on his left cheek. Histopathologic examination revealed dense neutrophilic collections within the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat with abscess formation. Long filamentous organisms were seen within these collections and were subsequently identified by special stains and PCR as mycobacterium chelonae. Treatment was not possible as the patient developed bacteria bronchopneumonia before identification of the organism and he subsequently died. Post-mortem revealed no extra-cutaneous evidence of mycobacterium infection.
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ranking = 1.58105511798
keywords = mycobacterium
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8/25. Infections due to the newly described species Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum.

    We report on four cases of infection by the recently described species Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. In two cases the mycobacterium was isolated from AIDS patients, while in the others it was responsible for pulmonary disease in elderly men. Our findings suggest that M. parascrofulaceum is an opportunistic pathogen, like many other nontuberculous mycobacterial species.
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ranking = 0.79052755899002
keywords = mycobacterium
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9/25. Pseudo-Gaucher cells in mycobacterial infection: a report of two cases.

    This report describes two cases of mycobacterial infection with pseudo-Gaucher cells. Both patients had no clinical evidence of inherited gaucher disease. The first case was a patient with AIDS and mycobacterium avium intracellulare involving the lung, spleen, and bone marrow. The bone marrow aspirates showed many histiocytes with needle-like inclusions. Acid fast staining showed that these histiocytes contained acid fast bacilli. bone marrow biopsies revealed granulomatous lesions with aggregates of foamy histiocytes. The second case was an alcoholic patient with Mycobacteriumkanasassi infection involving the lung and lymph nodes. The lymph node aspirates showed infiltration of the same cells with acid fast bacilli in the cytoplasm.
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = avium
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10/25. The causes of death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinical and pathologic study with emphasis on the role of pulmonary diseases.

    The clinical records and autopsy data of 75 patients dying with AIDS were reviewed to determine the frequency of individual diseases diagnosed premortem and postmortem, the significance of pulmonary processes found in the lungs at autopsy, and the clinical and pathologic causes of death. cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was identified histologically either premortem or postmortem in 81% of patients. The lungs and adrenal glands were infected most commonly. Only one-half of CMV infections were recognized premortem. Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma occurred in 68% and 59% of patients, respectively, but were not unsuspected premortem in any patient. Visceral involvement with Kaposi sarcoma, however, was frequently recognized only at autopsy. While disseminated M. avium-intracellulare infection was common (31% of patients), histologically documented pulmonary disease was uncommon (3% of patients). Cryptococcal infection, diagnosed in 10 patients, was confined to the central nervous system in only 1 patient. toxoplasma, in contrast, infected the brain of only 6 patients. All 75 patients had one or more disease processes identified in their lungs or pleurae at autopsy. These processes included opportunistic infections in 76% of patients, neoplasms in 37% (Kaposi sarcoma in 36% and lymphoma in 3%), and other processes in 60%. The most prevalent pathogen, CMV was found in pulmonary tissue from 44 patients and caused significant disease in 21 patients. Five patients died due to CMV pneumonia. pneumocystis carinii was found at autopsy in 24 patients. In spite of treatment, pneumocystis pneumonia was fatal in 11 patients. One patient died with concomitant CMV and pneumocystis pneumonia. Kaposi sarcoma, identified in the lungs of 23 patients, led to death in 5 patients via upper airway obstruction, hemorrhage, or parenchymal destruction. Other fatal pulmonary processes included bacterial pneumonia in 9 patients, idiopathic diffuse alveolar damage in 5, cryptococcosis in 2, and pulmonary hemorrhage in 1. Specific clinical criteria were used to determine the cause of death due to organ system failure. Fifty-one percent of patients died due to respiratory failure; 16% from neurologic disease; 17% from hypotension that was not caused by respiratory, neurologic, or cardiac disease; and 3% from cardiac dysfunction. Thirteen percent of deaths did not meet the clinical criteria defining these 4 categories. This clinical assessment was combined with autopsy data to identify specific diseases as causes of death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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ranking = 0.16666666666667
keywords = avium
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