Cases reported "Opportunistic Infections"

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1/23. Combined anti-fungal therapy and surgical resection as treatment of pulmonary zygomycosis in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Opportunistic fungal infection is a rare but severe complication in allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. We report a 49-year-old patient who developed pneumonitis after BMT, due to a mucorales fungus (class Zygomycetes), absidia corymbifera. Infections due to mucormycosis are likely to become increasingly recognized even though the occurrence after BMT has only been described sporadically. We postulate that the patient was contaminated before BMT despite no intensive drug treatment or other iatrogenic features, related to his poor living conditions and developed the infection during aplasia. He immediately received i.v. liposomal amphotericin b (AmBisome) and GM-CSF. Because there was no response, the infected area and necrotic tissue were resected. Despite initial clinical and biological improvement and the absence of Mucor on mycological examination post-surgery, the patient died 3 weeks later from bilateral pulmonary infection and multiorgan failure.
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keywords = zygomycosis
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2/23. Pulmonary rhizopus infection in a diabetic renal transplant recipient.

    Infectious complications after renal transplantation remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. mucormycosis is a rare infection in renal transplant recipients; however, mortality is exceedingly high. risk factors predisposing to this disease include prolonged neutropenia, diabetes, and patients who are immunosuppressed (Singh N, Gayowski T, Singh J, Yu LV. Invasive gastrointestinal zygomycosis in a liver transplant recipient: case report and review of zygomycosis in solid-organ transplant recipients, Clin Infect Dis 1995: 20: 617). life-threatening infections can occur, as this fungus has the propensity to invade blood vessel endothelium, resulting in hematological dissemination. We report a case of cavitary rhizopus lung infection, 2 months after renal transplantation, where the patient was treated successfully with amphotericin b and surgical resection of the lesions with preservation of his allograft function. In this era of intensified immunosuppression, we may see an increased incidence of mucormycosis in transplant population. Invasive diagnostic work-up is mandatory in case of suspicion; amphotericin b and, in selected cases, surgical resection are the mainstays of therapy.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = zygomycosis
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3/23. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    The hazards associated with invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis in oncology patients are well recognised. These conditions typically present late in treatment, often after prolonged or recurrent episodes of neutropenia. We report the occurrence of absidia corymbifera infection causing rhinocerebral zygomycosis in two children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, early in the induction phase of treatment and within a 3-month interval, in the same oncology unit. The initial presentation of facial pain was rapidly followed by the development of cranial nerve palsies, cavernous sinus thrombosis, diabetes insipidus, seizures and death within 9 days of symptom onset, despite aggressive management with high-dose liposomal amphotericin (Ambisome), surgical debridement and local instillation of amphotericin solution. These cases highlight the need for awareness of zygomycosis as a potentially lethal fungal infection that can present even with short duration exposure to the usual risk factors. Their occurrence within a limited time period raises questions as to the relative importance of environmental exposure. The failure of medical and surgical intervention to impact on the course illustrates the need to develop appropriate preventative strategies which may have to incorporate measures to reduce the environmental exposure of susceptible patients.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = zygomycosis
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4/23. cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by zygomycosis after unrelated bone marrow transplantation.

    Invasive zygomycosis is a devastating fungal infection occurring as an opportunistic infection after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). sinusitis can lead to fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients, and cavernous sinus thrombosis, an uncommon condition in immunocompetent patients, typically follows an infection involving the medial third of the face, nose, or paranasal sinuses. patients undergoing unrelated-donor BMT (UD-BMT) are prone to develop life-threatening infections because of poor recovery of cellular immunity. Despite adequate clinical evaluation and treatment, the prognosis of patients with invasive fungal infections is dismal, especially when intracerebral structures are affected. We describe a case of a patient who underwent an UD-BMT and developed cavernous sinus thrombosis after sinusitis due to zygomycosis. Moreover, he also had disseminated fungal (Zygomycetes and Aspergillus) and viral (cytomegalovirus and adenovirus) infections.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = zygomycosis
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5/23. Primary cutaneous zygomycosis due to Mucor circinelloides.

    A 62-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndrome presented with a 4-week history of a large indurated ulcer with a black eschar on the forearm following trauma. On biopsy a diagnosis of zygomycosis was made as broad, sparsely septate, thin-walled hyphae were seen in the deep dermis and subcutaneous fat. The zygomycete fungus Mucor circinelloides was cultured from tissue. Further investigation confirmed that the infection was localized to the skin. The 6 x 4 cm lesion was excised and the defect closed with a neurovascular island flap. No other treatment was undertaken. The patient died 6 months later from her haematological disease without recurrence of the fungal infection.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = zygomycosis
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6/23. Successful allogeneic stem cell transplant after invasive pulmonary zygomycosis.

    We report the successful outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and pulmonary zygomycosis diagnosed prior to transplant. The lesion was surgically excised and SCT proceeded with antifungal therapy, granulocyte transfusions and G-CSF support during the period of neutropenia.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = zygomycosis
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7/23. Fungal infections in marrow transplant recipients under antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole.

    Fungal infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. The growing incidence of these infections is related to several factors including prolonged granulocytopenia, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, conditioning regimens, and use of immunosuppression to avoid graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). In the present series, we report five cases of invasive mold infections documented among 64 BMT recipients undergoing fluconazole antifungal prophylaxis: 1) A strain of scedosporium prolificans was isolated from a skin lesion that developed on day 72 after BMT in a chronic myeloid leukemic patient. 2) invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (aspergillus fumigatus) was diagnosed on day 29 in a patient with a long period of hospitalization before being transplanted for severe aplastic anemia. 3) A tumoral lung lesion due to rhizopus arrhizus (zygomycosis) was observed in a transplanted patient who presented severe chronic GvHD. 4) A tumoral lesion due to Aspergillus spp involving the 7th, 8th and 9th right ribs and local soft tissue was diagnosed in a BMT patient on day 110. 5) A patient with a history of Ph1-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia exhibited a cerebral lesion on day 477 after receiving a BMT during an episode of severe chronic GvHD. At that time, blood and spinal fluid cultures yielded fusarium sp. opportunistic infections due to fungi other than candida spp are becoming a major problem among BMT patients receiving systemic antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = zygomycosis
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8/23. zygomycosis caused by cunninghamella bertholletiae in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Infections caused by cunninghamella bertholletiae are rare but severe. Only 32 cases have been reported as yet, but in 26 of these this species was a contributing cause of the death of the patient. This opportunistic mould in the order mucorales infects immunocompromized patients suffering from haematological malignancies or diabetes mellitus, as well as solid organ transplant patients. The lung is the organ most often involved. Two cases of primary cutaneous infection have been previously reported subsequent to soft-tissue injuries. We report a case of primary cutaneous C. bertholletiae zygomycosis in a 54-year-old, insulin-dependent diabetic man who was treated with tacrolimus and steroids after kidney transplantation. No extracutaneous involvement was found. In this patient, the infection may have been related to insulin injections. The patient recovered after an early surgical excision of the lesion and daily administration of itraconazole for 2 months. This case emphasizes the importance of an early diagnosis of cutaneous zygomycosis, which often presents as necrotic-looking lesions. Prompt institution of antifungal therapy and rapid surgical intervention are necessary to improve the prospects of patients who have contracted these potentially severe infections.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = zygomycosis
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9/23. Improved outcome of zygomycosis in patients with hematological diseases?

    zygomycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that is increasingly reported in hematological patients. We describe 2 cases of successfully treated rhino-cerebral zygomycosis and give an overview of 120 patients from the literature with underlying hematological or oncological disorders. These data document the improved survival in sinus (15/17 patients surviving) and cutaneous (6/9 patients surviving) disease. Hematological patients with pulmonary (9/30 patients surviving) or disseminated (4/38 patients surviving) zygomycosis still have a poor prognosis. The clinical course of sinus-orbital involvement (4/11 patients surviving) follows sinus-cerebral (2/3 patients surviving) or cerebral (3/6 patients surviving) disease. Besides deoxycholate amphotericin b (AmB) (24/62 patients surviving), patients seem to benefit from liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) (10/16 patients surviving) or sequential AmB/L-AmB treatment (6/8 patients surviving). Alternative treatment options lead only in a few patients to success.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = zygomycosis
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10/23. Sino-oral zygomycosis due to absidia corymbifera in a patient with acute leukemia.

    fungi belonging to class Zygomycetes become pathogenic in certain predisposing conditions; principally diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, trauma or burns. We report a case of a 31-year-old man with acute promyelocytic leukemia who developed infection of the sino-oral cavity, due to absidia corymbifera during a neutropenic phase following induction chemotherapy. A provisional diagnosis of zygomycosis was made by demonstration of broad aseptate branching filamentous hyphae in the scrapings of the palate, which was subsequently confirmed as A. corymbifera by culture. Surgical debridement could not be done due to the thrombocytopenic status of the patient; instead antifungal therapy with amphotericin b was instituted. However, the patient succumbed to the infection after 15 days of its diagnosis. Although infections with absidia are infrequent, this case highlights the need for its awareness as a potentially lethal opportunistic fungal infection that can present even with short duration of exposure to the usual risk factors.
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ranking = 1.25
keywords = zygomycosis
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