Cases reported "Optic Atrophy"

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1/180. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined.
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keywords = visual, cortex
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2/180. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) PET scan of the brain in type IV 3-methylglutaconic aciduria: clinical and MRI correlations.

    The clinical, 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan characteristics of four patients diagnosed to have 3-methylglutaconic aciduria were reviewed retrospectively. The disease has a characteristic clinical pattern. The initial presentations were developmental delay, hypotonia, and severe failure to thrive. Later, progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and quadriparesis were observed, followed by severe dystonia and choreoathetosis. Finally, the patients became severely demented and bedridden. The 18FDG PET scans showed progressive disease, explaining the neurological status. It could be classified into three stages. Stage I: absent 18FDG uptake in the heads of the caudate, mild decreased thalamic and cerebellar metabolism. Stage II: absent uptake in the anterior half and posterior quarter of the putamina, mild-moderate decreased uptake in the cerebral cortex more prominently in the parieto-temporal lobes. Progressive decreased thalamic and cerebellar uptake. Stage III: absent uptake in the putamina and severe decreased cortical uptake consistent with brain atrophy and further decrease uptake in the cerebellum. The presence of both structural and functional changes in the brain, demonstrated by the combined use of MRI and 18FDG PET scan, with good clinical correlation, make the two techniques complementary in the imaging evaluation of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.
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ranking = 0.058009120665396
keywords = cortex
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3/180. arachnoiditis and VECP change.

    A five-year-old boy presented with tuberculous meningitis and subsequently developed amaurosis with optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA) late in the convalescent stage of the illness. The visual evoked cortical potentials were correlated with the decreased and improved postoperative acuity. The diagnosis and classification of OCA have been discussed with emphasis given to prompt neurosurgical treatment.
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ranking = 0.9419908793346
keywords = visual
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4/180. Ocular changes in mucopolysaccharidosis iv A (Morquio A syndrome) and long-term results of perforating keratoplasty.

    BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are an inhomogeneous group of disorders of errors in the carbohydrate metabolism with severe ocular involvement (corneal opacification, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy). PATIENT PRESENTATION: We report on a boy aged 12 years, with Morquio A (MPS IV A) syndrome. Ocular findings: progressive pseudoexophthalmus due to shallow orbits, increasing corneal stromal clouding, intermittent dissociated manifest nystagmus of the left eye, nyctalopia. visual acuity OD cc = 0.16, OS cc = 0.05. electrophysiology: changes suggesting a symptomatic tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. TREATMENT AND COURSE OF disease: OS: perforating keratoplasty. Postoperative improvement of visual acuity to 0.25 for nearly a year, followed by progressive reopacification of the corneal graft. Both eyes: progressive signs of tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. visual acuity now reduced to OD 0.05, OS 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Success of a keratoplasty is limited by (1) reopacification of the cornea, (2) visual impairment due to (a) retinal degeneration and (b) optic atrophy. The indication for perforating keratoplasty has to be thought about very carefully in these multimorbid patients. In our patient, beside progressive visual impairment there is a progressive deafness which dominates his social and school life. Attending school is severely complicated by the double handicap. Perforating keratoplasty enabled the boy to attend a school for physically handicapped without a special low-vision care for another year. Progressive visual loss without further treatment options now renders optical and electronic low-vision aids necessary. Although the time of improved visual acuity lasted less than a year, we think patients with a life expectancy of less than 20 years should have every possible improvement of their situation - even if it does not last permanently. We therefore propose perforating keratoplasty in spite of insufficient long-term results.
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ranking = 4.709954396673
keywords = visual
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5/180. Retinal red-free light photographs in two congenital conditions: a case of optic hypoplasia and a case of congenital hemianopia.

    Two patients with congenital anomalies involving the optic pathways are described. The first case presented a unilateral hypoplastic optic nerve as well as an ipsilateral inferior conus and an elevated disc. The second case showed the features of homonymous hemianopia with sparing of the macula and decreased visual acuity on the side of the affected cerebral hemisphere. Red-free photographs were obtained in both cases. The importance of this old-new investigative tool in completing a neuro-ophthalmological study is stressed.
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ranking = 0.9419908793346
keywords = visual
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6/180. Infantile cerebral aneurysms with visual pathway compression.

    Intracranial aneurysms are rare in infancy. The commonest presentation is intracranial hemorrhage, but signs of mass effect are more frequent than in adults. We report 2 infants with cerebral aneurysms, one presenting with macrocephaly and another with strabismus. Both had visual loss and optic disc pallor; MRI revealed a suprasellar mass and anterior visual pathway compression. In both cases, the preoperative diagnosis was craniopharyngioma. It is essential to recognize that, although exceedingly uncommon, cerebral aneurysms do occur in infants and have features that differ from those in adults.
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ranking = 5.6519452760076
keywords = visual
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7/180. A de novo missense mutation in a critical domain of the X-linked DDP gene causes the typical deafness-dystonia-optic atrophy syndrome.

    We report the first de novo mutation in the DDP gene in a Dutch 11-year-old boy with deafness and dystonia. Previously reported mutations in the DDP gene have all been frameshifts/nonsense mutations or deletion of the entire gene as part of a larger deletion encompassing the BTK gene. The clinical presentation was uniformly characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, dystonia, mental deterioration, paranoid psychotic features, and optic atrophy, indicating progressive neurodegeneration. Our report illustrates that de novo mutations occur and that a missense mutation, C66W, may cause an equally severe clinical picture. The diagnosis of sensorineural hearing impairment associated with neurologic and visual disability in a male, therefore, should encourage the search for mutations in the DDP gene, even in sporadic cases. The association of deafness-dystonia syndrome with a missense mutation provides valuable information for in vitro investigations of the functional properties of the deafness-dystonia peptide which was recently shown to be the human homolog of a yeast protein, Tim8p, belonging to a family of small Tim proteins involved in intermembrane protein transport in mitochondria.
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ranking = 0.9419908793346
keywords = visual
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8/180. Radioactive plaque therapy for metastatic choroidal carcinoma.

    PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of radioactive episcleral plaque therapy for treatment of metastatic carcinoma to the choroid. DESIGN: Retrospective, noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Five patients (six eyes) with carcinoma metastatic to the choroid. methods: Retrospective review of the clinical records of five patients (six eyes) who underwent radioactive episcleral plaque therapy for choroidal metastases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor height, visual acuity, radiation optic neuropathy, and radiation retinopathy. RESULTS: Radioactive episcleral plaque therapy resulted in shrinkage of the treated tumors and resolution of subretinal fluid in all eyes. After plaque treatment, best-corrected visual acuity was maintained within two lines of initial visual acuity for two eyes, decreased more than two lines for one eye, and improved more than two lines in three eyes. The treatment was well tolerated and there was no acute toxicity. Late complications included optic nerve atrophy (at 2 years) with proliferative radiation retinopathy (at 3 years) in one eye and optic atrophy (at 6 months) in another eye that had received prior external beam therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In carefully selected cases, radioactive episcleral plaque therapy appears to be an effective and reasonable treatment for carcinoma metastatic to the choroid.
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ranking = 2.8259726380038
keywords = visual
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9/180. Reversal of optic canal stenosis in osteopetrosis after bone marrow transplant.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with infantile osteopetrosis and optic atrophy secondary to optic canal stenosis who demonstrated optic canal enlargement after bone marrow transplant. methods: Case report. A 3-month-old infant with infantile "malignant" osteopetrosis underwent ophthalmic examination, including visual evoked potentials, electroretinogram, and computed tomography (CT). bone marrow transplant was performed at 8 months of age. RESULTS: Examination revealed visual loss and optic atrophy, left eye greater than right eye, secondary to optic canal stenosis. Flash visual evoked potentials revealed a normal waveform in both eyes with increased latency in the left eye. Electroretinogram was normal in both eyes. CT after bone marrow transplant showed enlargement of the optic canals. Vision remains stable 43 months after bone marrow transplant. CONCLUSIONS: bone marrow transplant in infantile osteopetrosis may be followed by reversal of optic canal stenosis and preservation of vision.
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ranking = 2.8259726380038
keywords = visual
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10/180. Pachymeningitis with pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of pachymeningitis with pseudo-Foster Kennedy syndrome in a patient who was positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. methods: Case report. A 44-year-old man was examined for headache and diplopia. RESULTS: Left eye showed limitation of abduction. Ocular fundus, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and orbits were normal. The diplopia subsided spontaneously. Six months later, he noticed sudden visual loss in the left eye. The left eye showed optic disk atrophy and episcleritis, and the right eye showed papilloedema. Computed tomography and MRI exhibited thickened dura mater. serum perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody level was highly increased. CONCLUSION: Pachymeningitis with ocular involvement sometimes requires repeated CT or MRI for diagnosis. This disorder may be caused by microvasculitis.
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ranking = 0.9419908793346
keywords = visual
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