Cases reported "Optic Atrophy"

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1/453. Retinocephalic vascular malformation: case report.

    A 12-year-old boy who presented with unilateral blindness and exophthalmos was found to have retinocephalic vascular malformations (Bonnet-Dechaumme-Blanc syndrome or Wyburn-Mason syndrome). The ophthalmic, neurological and radiological findings of this rare syndrome are discussed. ( info)

2/453. Clinical, pathologic, and neurochemical studies of an unusual case of neuronal storage disease with lamellar cytoplasmic inclusions: a new genetic disorder?

    A child of first-cousin Puerto Rican parents had global developmental delay, failure to thrive, and hypotonia since early infancy. At 1 1/2 years of age, she developed clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of progressive motor and sensory neuropathy. At 2 1/2 years, she developed visual impairment and optic atrophy followed by gradual involvement of the 7th, 9th, 10th, and 12th cranial nerves. Uncontrollable myoclonic seizures began at 4 years and she died at 6 years of age. Motor nerve conduction velocities were initially normal and later became markedly slowed. Sensory distal latency responses were absent. Lysosomal enzyme activities in leukocytes and fibroblasts were normal. sural nerve and two muscle biopsies showed only nondiagnostic abnormalities. Electron microscopy of lymphocytes, skin, and fibroblasts showed cytoplasmic inclusions. light microscopy of frontal cortex biopsy showed neuronal storage material staining positively with Luxol fast blue, and electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic membranous bodies in neurons, suggesting an accumulation of a ganglioside. At autopsy, all organs were small but otherwise normal and without abnormal storage cells in the liver, spleen, or bone marrow. Anterior spinal nerve roots showed loss of large myelinated axons. The brain was small and atrophic; cortical neurons showed widespread accumulation of storage material, most marked in the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. Subcortical white matter was gliotic with loss of axons and myelin sheaths. In cortical gray matter there was a 35% elevation of total gangliosides, with a 16-fold increase in GM3, a three- to four-fold increase in GM2 gangliosides, and a 15-fold elevation of lactosyl ceramide. GM3 sialidase activity was normal in gray matter at 3.1 nmols/mg protein per hour and lactosyl ceraminidase I and II activities were 70% to 80% of normal. In white matter, total myelin was reduced by 50% but its composition was normal. Phospholipid distribution and sphingomyelin content were normal in gray matter, white matter, and in the liver. These biochemical findings were interpreted as nonspecific abnormalities. The nature of the neuronal storage substance remains to be determined. ( info)

3/453. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) PET scan of the brain in type IV 3-methylglutaconic aciduria: clinical and MRI correlations.

    The clinical, 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan characteristics of four patients diagnosed to have 3-methylglutaconic aciduria were reviewed retrospectively. The disease has a characteristic clinical pattern. The initial presentations were developmental delay, hypotonia, and severe failure to thrive. Later, progressive encephalopathy with rigidity and quadriparesis were observed, followed by severe dystonia and choreoathetosis. Finally, the patients became severely demented and bedridden. The 18FDG PET scans showed progressive disease, explaining the neurological status. It could be classified into three stages. Stage I: absent 18FDG uptake in the heads of the caudate, mild decreased thalamic and cerebellar metabolism. Stage II: absent uptake in the anterior half and posterior quarter of the putamina, mild-moderate decreased uptake in the cerebral cortex more prominently in the parieto-temporal lobes. Progressive decreased thalamic and cerebellar uptake. Stage III: absent uptake in the putamina and severe decreased cortical uptake consistent with brain atrophy and further decrease uptake in the cerebellum. The presence of both structural and functional changes in the brain, demonstrated by the combined use of MRI and 18FDG PET scan, with good clinical correlation, make the two techniques complementary in the imaging evaluation of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. ( info)

4/453. optic atrophy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy.

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic, multifocal disorder usually defined as limited to the peripheral nervous system. Multifocal motor neuropathy, an acquired demyelinating neuropathy with conduction block affecting motor neurons only, may be a pathogenically distinct syndrome or a predominantly motor variant of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. central nervous system demyelination including optic neuropathy has been reported uncommonly previously in these entities. We report two cases and review the literature on the possible association of optic neuropathy and chronic acquired polyneuropathy. ( info)

5/453. arachnoiditis and VECP change.

    A five-year-old boy presented with tuberculous meningitis and subsequently developed amaurosis with optochiasmatic arachnoiditis (OCA) late in the convalescent stage of the illness. The visual evoked cortical potentials were correlated with the decreased and improved postoperative acuity. The diagnosis and classification of OCA have been discussed with emphasis given to prompt neurosurgical treatment. ( info)

6/453. Ophthalmic findings in GAPO syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: The main manifestations of GAPO syndrome are growth retardation (G), alopecia (A), pseudoanodontia (P), and optic atrophy (O). CASES: This syndrome has been described in 21 patients from 16 different families. Four cases are from turkey and have been presented by Sayli and Gul. The purpose of our study is to document the cases from turkey and discuss the ophthalmological and neuro-ophthalmolgical findings of these and other reported GAPO cases. OBSERVATIONS: All patients in the literature and our 4 cases have severe growth retardation with delayed bone age in infancy, characteristic facial appearance (high and bossed forehead, midface hypoplasia), alopecia or severe hypotrichosis, and pseudoanodontia. optic atrophy was present in 1 of our cases and in 5 previous cases. glaucoma was present in 5 cases, including 2 of ours. Buphthalmia and keratopathy secondary to glaucoma were also observed. White eyelashes, seen only in our cases, may be a sign of "early senility." CONCLUSIONS: optic atrophy is not a constant finding in GAPO syndrome. glaucoma may accompany the ocular findings. This syndrome has been attributed to either ectodermal dysplasia or the accumulation of extracellular connective tissue matrix, due to an enzyme deficiency involved in its metabolism. Current studies show that an elastin defect and secondary changes in collagen may be important in the pathogenesis of the disease. ( info)

7/453. Ocular changes in mucopolysaccharidosis iv A (Morquio A syndrome) and long-term results of perforating keratoplasty.

    BACKGROUND: The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are an inhomogeneous group of disorders of errors in the carbohydrate metabolism with severe ocular involvement (corneal opacification, retinal degeneration, optic atrophy). PATIENT PRESENTATION: We report on a boy aged 12 years, with Morquio A (MPS IV A) syndrome. Ocular findings: progressive pseudoexophthalmus due to shallow orbits, increasing corneal stromal clouding, intermittent dissociated manifest nystagmus of the left eye, nyctalopia. visual acuity OD cc = 0.16, OS cc = 0.05. electrophysiology: changes suggesting a symptomatic tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. TREATMENT AND COURSE OF disease: OS: perforating keratoplasty. Postoperative improvement of visual acuity to 0.25 for nearly a year, followed by progressive reopacification of the corneal graft. Both eyes: progressive signs of tapetoretinal degeneration and optic atrophy. visual acuity now reduced to OD 0.05, OS 0.1. CONCLUSIONS: Success of a keratoplasty is limited by (1) reopacification of the cornea, (2) visual impairment due to (a) retinal degeneration and (b) optic atrophy. The indication for perforating keratoplasty has to be thought about very carefully in these multimorbid patients. In our patient, beside progressive visual impairment there is a progressive deafness which dominates his social and school life. Attending school is severely complicated by the double handicap. Perforating keratoplasty enabled the boy to attend a school for physically handicapped without a special low-vision care for another year. Progressive visual loss without further treatment options now renders optical and electronic low-vision aids necessary. Although the time of improved visual acuity lasted less than a year, we think patients with a life expectancy of less than 20 years should have every possible improvement of their situation - even if it does not last permanently. We therefore propose perforating keratoplasty in spite of insufficient long-term results. ( info)

8/453. Autosomal dominant optic atrophy with unilateral facial palsy: a new hereditary condition?

    A mother and daughter are reported with bilateral optic atrophy with onset in infancy and unilateral facial palsy. This appears to be a novel autosomal dominant disorder. ( info)

9/453. Unilateral glaucomatous damage in a patient with hemifacial spasm.

    We report a patient with hemifacial spasm of the right hemiface and ipsilateral glaucomatous optic neuropathy. No risk factors were found to explain the unilateral glaucoma. Ocular pressure readings were always within normal range. ( info)

10/453. Diaphragma sellae metastasis from colon carcinoma mimicking a meningioma. A case report.

    We describe a rare case of metastatic intra-suprasellar adenocarcinoma from colonic cancer mimicking a meningioma of the "diaphragma sellae". autopsy studies indicate breast and lung carcinoma to be the most frequent primary tumor metastasizing this site, particularly in patients with systemic spread. While diabetes insipidus is reported to be one of the commonest symptoms in these cases, the only clinical manifestation of the tumor in our patient was a bitemporal hemianopia, while the primary tumor remained asymptomatic. In the available literature are reported only two pituitary metastasis from operated colon carcinoma. In both cases the diagnosis of the colon cancer preceded the pituitary operation. The clinico-pathological and neuroradiological aspects of this unusual lesion are analyzed in the light of the relevant literature on the topic focusing on recent MRI acquisitions. ( info)
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