Cases reported "Optic Nerve Diseases"

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1/762. Bilateral optic disk edema caused by sarcoidosis mimicking pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of retrobulbar optic nerve and chiasm sarcoidosis that mimicked pseudotumor cerebri. methods: A 34-year-old, thin, black woman presented with transient visual obscurations, normal visual acuity, bilateral optic disk edema, and enlarged blind spots. Clinical, medical, and radiologic evaluations were consistent with pseudotumor cerebri. The patient improved while taking acetazolamide, but 6 months later her symptoms worsened. neuroimaging disclosed enhancement of the optic nerve and chiasm. RESULTS: Despite administration of intravenous corticosteroids, the patient's vision worsened. Bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestrations were performed, and pathology disclosed sarcoidosis. CONCLUSION: sarcoidosis of the optic nerves and chiasm may mimic pseudotumor cerebri.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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2/762. carbon monoxide poisoning causes optic neuropathy.

    PURPOSE: To describe the electrophysiological and psychophysical effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on visual function. methods: Three patients are presented who suffered CO poisoning, two due to suicide attempts and one in the course of a road traffic accident. After a full ocular examination, Goldmann visual fields, flash and pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and flash and pattern electroretinograms (ERGs) were tested. RESULTS: electrophysiology showed reduced or absent N95 components of the pattern ERG and delayed, reduced VEPs. A positive-negative-positive (PNP) VEP waveform was seen in two cases. In one case, where presentation occurred at an early stage, visual and electrophysiological function was improved with hydroxycobalamine. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of ERG and VEP findings suggest that CO poisoning can cause a toxic optic neuropathy that may have a similar aetiological mechanism to that in tobacco amblyopia. Early treatment with hydroxycobalamine may be of some benefit.
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ranking = 1.8184447072212
keywords = neuropathy
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3/762. optic nerve cysticercosis in the optic canal.

    The authors present a first case of cysticercosis in the optic canal in a fifteen-year-old female patient. cysticercosis of the optic nerve is rare. A cyst in the optic canal, beneath the sheath of the optic nerve, has never been reported. The patient presented with rapidly diminishing vision in the left eye, headache and papillitis. A magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion at the entrance of the optic canal. Surgery performed was a transcranial orbitotomy which included deroofing of the optic canal and removal of the cyst from under the sheath of the optic nerve. The cyst proved to be cysticercus histopathologically. The outcome was a remarkable visual recovery.
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ranking = 1.75
keywords = nerve
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4/762. Cerebral metastasis presenting with altitudinal field defect.

    A 75-year-old man presented with a unilateral inferior altitudinal visual field defect and a history of weight loss and night sweats. The acuity in the affected eye was 20/200, otherwise his ocular examination was normal. neuroimaging demonstrated a post-fixed chiasm, with a frontal metastasis compressing the intracerebral portion of the optic nerve. A chest x-ray showed classical cannon ball lesions, secondary to malignant melanoma. This is the first case report of an intracerebral tumor producing an inferior altitudinal field defect.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = nerve
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5/762. Acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in multiple sclerosis.

    Nystagmus seen only with convergence is unusual. We describe four cases of acquired convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis. The nystagmus was horizontal and asymmetric in all patients. eye movement recordings in one subject showed a conjugate rather than a convergent-divergent relationship of the phase of movement between the two eyes. All patients had evidence of optic neuropathy and cerebellar dysfunction. Occlusion of either eye during fixation of near targets led to divergent drift of the covered eye and a decrease in nystagmus. Intravenous scopolamine reduced nystagmus in one patient. Base-in prisms alleviated symptoms of oscillopsia at near and improving reading visual acuity. Convergence-evoked pendular nystagmus may be more common than currently appreciated, particularly among patients with multiple sclerosis.
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ranking = 0.36368894144424
keywords = neuropathy
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6/762. Compression of the visual pathway by anterior cerebral artery aneurysm.

    Visual failure is an uncommon presenting symptom of an intracranial aneurysm. It is even more uncommon in aneurysms arising from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). We presented 2 patients with an aneurysm of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery causing visual field defects. One patient presented with a complete homonymous hemianopia due to compression of the optic tract by a giant aneurysm of the proximal left A1 segment. The second patient had an almost complete unilateral anopia caused by compression of the optic nerve and chiasm by an aneurysm of the distal part of the A1 segment with a small chiasmatic hemorrhage and ventricular rupture.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = nerve
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7/762. Bilateral periopticointrascleral hemorrhages associated with traumatic child abuse.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of bilateral periopticoscleral hemorrhages associated with traumatic child abuse. methods: Postmortem gross examination and histopathologic studies of both eyes and the optic nerves of a 6-month-old infant who died from subdural hematoma. RESULTS: Gross examination and histopathologic step sections disclosed bilateral intrascleral hemorrhages around both optic nerves. In addition, bilateral diffuse multilayered retinal, vitreous, and sublaminar (beneath the internal limiting membrane) hemorrhages were present. CONCLUSION: Periopticointrascleral hemorrhages are characteristic of blunt head trauma and may constitute important forensic evidence in cases of suspected child abuse.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = nerve
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8/762. Inefficiency of the anticoagulant therapy in the regression of the radiation-induced optic neuropathy in Cushing's disease.

    radiation-induced optic neuropathy is a rare complication (prevalence less than 1%) following radiotherapy of the sellar region. However, the vasculopathy in Cushing's disease predisposes to radiation-induced injury. We report the case of a 24-year-old man with Cushing's disease since he was 16. The hormonal study including bilateral inferior petrosal sinus catheterization diagnosed a pituitary right lesion, but imagiology was always negative. He underwent a transsphenoidal microadenomectomy and the pathological study showed the presence of corticotrophic hyperplasia but no adenoma. Secondary hypothyroidism and hypogonadism as well as permanent diabetes insipidus were diagnosed and because the patient was not cured he underwent a second transsphenoidal total hypophysectomy. After that and because he was still hypercortisolemic, pituitary external irradiation was given in a total dose of 6000 rad. Six months later he developed progressive bilateral visual loss. Cerebral MR revealed focal enhancement of the enlarged optic nerves and chiasm, associated with demyelination areas of the posterior visual pathways. Treatment was tried first with high doses of corticosteroids and later with anticoagulants-heparin EV. 1000 U/h during 7 days followed by warfarin, but unsuccessfully, probably because the patient was already amaurotic at the beginning of the last treatment.
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ranking = 2.0684447072212
keywords = neuropathy, nerve
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9/762. Optic neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS): clinical features, pathogenesis, review of the literature and proposed ophthalmological criteria for APS diagnosis.

    Optic neuropathy is a well-known ocular manifestation occurring in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and it remains one of the major causes of blindness in these patients. We report data from six SLE patients with optic neuropathy, one of whom was considered to have antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This patient had monolateral optic neuropathy, whereas the other five SLE patients had bilateral optic nerve disease. We believe that the monolateral occurrence of optic neuropathy in our patient can be considered as a 'focal' neurological disease due to a thrombotic event involving the ciliary vasculature. Conversely, bilateral optic nerve damage in SLE could be considered to be a 'general' neurological disease due to different immunological mechanisms, such as vasculitis. Additionally, the literature on SLE patients affected by optic neuropathy is reviewed to evaluate the major clinical features, particularly neurological features. In reviewing the literature, it appears that bilateral optic neuropathy in SLE occurs more frequently than monolateral optic neuropathy, and the main neurological manifestation seen in these patients is transverse myelitis, particularly in SLE patients with bilateral optic nerve disease. Finally, we propose a clinico-ophthalmological spectrum of APS and outline the ocular clinical manifestations that can be considered as diagnostic for the syndrome.
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ranking = 13.33683655764
keywords = nerve disease, neuropathy, nerve
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10/762. Ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome) and T-cell lymphoma involving the skin and to describe the clinical course of the disease with selected examples. methods: A computerized diagnostic retrieval system was used to identify all patients with T-cell lymphoma involving the skin who were examined at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, minnesota) between January 1, 1976 and December 31, 1990. The medical records of affected patients were reviewed. RESULTS: During the 15-year interval from 1976 through 1990, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 2,155 patients. Of these 2,155 patients, 42 (1.95%; 26 male and 16 female) had at least 1 ophthalmic abnormality attributable to the disease. The diagnoses in these 42 patients were mycosis fungoides in 19, clinical variants of T-cell lymphoma of the skin (most commonly, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) in 11, and sezary syndrome in 12. Cicatricial eyelid ectropion was the most common finding, affecting 17 (40.4%) of the 42 patients. Thirty-seven patients had findings that, although probably not a direct consequence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, have been cataloged in previous studies. CONCLUSION: Although ophthalmic abnormalities in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma are relatively uncommon, the manifestations of the disease are diverse and frequently difficult to treat.
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ranking = 0.0010518645709486
keywords = peripheral
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