Cases reported "optic nerve injuries"

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1/129. Management of traumatic luxation of the globe. A case report.

    PURPOSE: To report the management of a patient who had LeFort type III fractures and traumatic luxation of the globe with avulsion of the optic nerve and all extraocular muscles except for the medial rectus. methods: Eight hours after the trauma, the detached and retracted superior and lateral recti muscles could be found and sutured to their original insertions. The inferior rectus could not be retrieved. RESULTS: Although the left eye had no light perception, most of its motility was restored resulting in an unblemished cosmesis. CONCLUSION: Avoiding primary enucleation helped to alleviate the psychological burden of the trauma on the patient. In case of the eventual development of phthisis bulbi, the patient will have a chance to be fitted with a prosthesis over his own eye with a resulting better motility. ( info)

2/129. Brainstem anesthesia presenting as dysarthria.

    After having a retrobulbar injection for anesthesia before cataract surgery, a patient developed dysarthria. This was the presenting sign for penetration of the optic nerve sheath by the retrobulbar injection, with subsequent brainstem anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient demonstrated cranial nerve dysfunctions with tongue deviation, tachycardia, hypertension, and contralateral sixth and third nerve palsies. I believe this is the first documented case in which dysarthria is the presenting sign for brainstem anesthesia resulting from a retrobulbar injection. ( info)

3/129. optic nerve avulsion secondary to a basketball injury.

    optic nerve avulsion secondary to a basketball injury is a rare complication. The patient underwent a vitrectomy for a non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage. The nerve was partially avulsed with multiple choroidal ruptures in the fovea. It was concluded that optic nerve disorders rarely occur after basketball injuries. patients with a dense vitreous hemorrhage may benefit from a vitrectomy although the vision will be limited by the optic nerve disorder. ( info)

4/129. A case of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome requiring optic nerve decompression.

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a disease of noninheritable, genetic origin defined by the triad of cafe-au-lait pigmentation of the skin, precocious puberty, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. This syndrome, which affects young girls primarily, has also been reported with other endocrinopathies, and rarely with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. The fibrous dysplasia in MAS is of the polyostotic type and, apart from the characteristic sites such as the proximal aspects of the femur and the pelvis, the craniofacial region is frequently involved. A male patient with MAS presented with juvenile gigantism, precocious puberty, pituitary adenoma-secreting growth hormone and prolactin, hypothalamic pituitary gonadal and thyroid dysfunction, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia causing optic nerve compression. Visual deterioration and its surgical management are presented. ( info)

5/129. optic nerve avulsion from a golfing injury.

    PURPOSE: To describe a patient with optic nerve avulsion after being struck in the eye with a golf club. methods: A 10-year-old male was hit in the left eye by a golf club. The patient underwent full ophthalmoscopic evaluation and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The patient had no light perception in the left eye when first seen. Avulsion of the optic nerve with vitreous hemorrhage was apparent on examination. Computed tomographic imaging of the brain and orbits revealed no abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: optic nerve avulsion from golf-related injury is more likely to occur when the impact site is between the globe and the orbital rim. rupture of the globe is more likely to occur with direct impact to it. ( info)

6/129. Traumatic optic neuropathy. A case report.

    A case of visual loss following cranio-maxillofacial trauma is reported. The patient had a sudden partial blindness associated with a fracture of the roof, medial and lateral orbital walls. Access to the orbit was achieved through a transethmoidal approach using the Howarth-Lynch medial incision and resecting the bone fragments which impinged on the optic nerve. The patient had total return of visual acuity, without surgical complications. The role of orbital and optic decompression in the management of patients with traumatic optic neuropathy is discussed. Its indications are controversial and the procedure should be considered only within the context of the specific needs of the individual patient. ( info)

7/129. Delayed post-traumatic visual loss: a clinical dilemma.

    A 16-year-old female presented with unilateral blindness in her right eye 2 months after blunt head trauma. optic nerve edema was demonstrated by funduscopic examination, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging and failed to respond to medical treatment. Delayed post-traumatic blindness may be a severe complication of head trauma. The late appearance leads to delayed diagnosis and resulting unresponsiveness to treatment. patients who experience head trauma that could involve the optic nerves should undergo ultrasonography of the optic nerves. An abnormal finding should be followed by an intensive evaluation to determine possible damage. ( info)

8/129. Multiple intracranial juvenile xanthogranulomas. Case report.

    The authors report on an 11-year-old boy in whom proptosis of the eye caused by a benign intraosseous xanthofibroma of the left orbital wall became clinically apparent at the age of 4 years. Two years later he developed bilateral papilledema, at which time computerized tomography and magnetic resonance studies revealed multiple enhancing intracranial lesions. The largest mass was located in the left middle fossa; other lesions were located at the tentorium cerebelli, in both lateral ventricles, near the superior sagittal sinus, and extracranially near the left jugular vein. The mass in the left middle fossa was resected and diagnosed as juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). Thirty months later, the patient again became symptomatic, exhibiting behavioral abnormalities and a decrease in mental powers. At that time, the two remaining lesions in both lateral ventricles had grown enough to cause trapping of the temporal horns and raised intracranial pressure. These lesions were successively resected and histopathologically confirmed to be JXGs. However, resection of the second intraventricular lesion was complicated by postoperative bilateral amaurosis, presumably caused by postdecompression optic neuropathy. According to a review of the literature, fewer than 20 patients with JXG involving the central nervous system have been reported. The patient described in this report is the first in whom multiple intracranial JXGs developed in the absence of cutaneous manifestations. Although JXGs are biologically benign lesions, the treatment of patients with multifocal and/or progressive intracranial manifestations is problematic. ( info)

9/129. Monocular blindness as a complication of trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy.

    PURPOSE: To raise the awareness of the rare complication of monocular blindness resulting from radiofrequency rhizotomy for trigeminal neuralgia. methods: Case series from tertiary referral centers. patients were referred after complaint of loss of vision. RESULTS: We report three patients who had trigeminal neuralgia and underwent treatment by radiofrequency rhizotomy. Each developed complete loss of vision in one eye immediately after the procedure. One patient died of an unrelated cause, and pathologic analysis revealed changes compatible with acute trauma to the right optic nerve. CONCLUSION: Our third case confirms the hypothesis that traumatic optic neuropathy after trigeminal radiofrequency rhizotomy results from malpositioning of the rhizotomy needle through the inferior orbital fissure into the orbital apex rather than the foramen ovale. ( info)

10/129. Dilated pupil during endoscopic sinus surgery: what does it mean?

    Endoscopic sinus surgery has become the standard of care for the surgical management of chronic sinus disease. Sinus disease and its surgical treatment carry the risk of orbital complications, irrespective of the approach. Orbital complications associated with sinus surgery include nasolacrimal duct damage, extraocular muscle injury, intraorbital hemorrhage/emphysema, and direct optic nerve damage, resulting in blindness. The finding of an unequal pupil at the end of a procedure would be a cause of considerable concern, but it is most likely due to the topical contamination of the eye with a mydriatic pharmacological agent commonly used in endoscopic sinus surgery. ( info)
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