Cases reported "Optic Neuritis"

Filter by keywords:



Filtering documents. Please wait...

11/27. Non-MS recurrent demyelinating diseases.

    The introduction of MRI has shown that the acute, recurrent (R), and multiphasic (M) forms of disseminated encephalomyelitis (DEM) are more common than suspected in adults, and that their MR images are sufficiently characteristic in most instances to make differentiation from multiple sclerosis (MS) possible. In addition, a number of clinical features of DEM are rarely seen in MS: fever, malaise, nausea, vomiting, positional vertigo, convulsions, aphasia, meningism, bilateral optic neuritis, and CSF leukocytosis and elevated protein. CSF oligoclonal bands are usually absent. It is remarkable that confusion between R- and MDEM and MS persists despite the numerous published reports on recurrent DEM dating back 70 years, many illustrating the characteristic MRIs. There are many case reports of DEM erroneously diagnosed as MS, Schilder's, Marburg's, Devic's, and Balo's disease, and, in particular brain tumors. It is probable that acute DEM is occasionally mistaken for a clinically isolated symptom of MS. Possible mechanisms for recurrence include localization at the site of a previous injury to the nervous system, or by the phenomenon of molecular mimicry. The importance of differentiating R- and MDEM from MS is greater today due to the recommendation that immunodulatory treatment be initiated in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome, or when the occurrence of a second clinical episode establishes the diagnosis of MS.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

12/27. Intravenous immunoglobulin and interferon: successful treatment of optic neuritis in pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    optic neuritis is a common clinical condition that causes loss of vision. It can be clinically isolated or can occur as one of the manifestations of multiple sclerosis. multiple sclerosis is a severe disabling demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is rare among children. The treatment of optic neuritis has been investigated in several trials, the results of which have shown that corticosteroids speed up the recovery of vision without affecting the final visual outcome. Treatment of neurologic disorders with intravenous immunoglobulin is an increasing feature of our practice for an expanding range of indications, including multiple sclerosis. Owing to its anti-inflammatory properties, intravenous immunoglobulin can be beneficial in the treatment of acute relapses and in the prevention of new relapses of multiple sclerosis. To our knowledge, there is only one experience of treatment of optic neuritis with intravenous immunoglobulin in multiple sclerosis, even if therapeutic trials are used in the therapy of multiple sclerosis. We report on a girl with optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis in whom treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin at first alone and subsequently associated with interferon achieved great improvement in visual acuity.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

13/27. Diagnostic and therapeutic doubts in retrobulbar neuritis in children.

    Retrobulbar neuritis is often very complicated clinical entity. The most common cause of retrobulbar neuritis is demyelinating disease of CNS. This report is to express some other uncommon causes of it. Three children, age 8 to 12 with sudden and severe visual loss are presented. The diagnosis of retrobulbar neuritis is made by complete ophtalmological examination in consultation with neuropediatrics and neuroradiologist. Different ethiological causes of retrobulbar neuritis are found: pranasal sinusitis, functional visual loss and pseudotumor cerebri. In first two children complete therapeutically effort was as expected, and by child with pseudotumor cerebri there was no improvement of visual acuity, even after 6 months. In this presentation the authors want to emphasise some uncommon causes of retrobulbar neuritis.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

14/27. Acute inflammatory demyelinating optic neuritis: current concepts in diagnosis and management.

    BACKGROUND: optic neuritis (ON), defined as an inflammatory demyelinating optic neuropathy, is a frequent cause of visual loss owing to optic nerve dysfunction in young or middle-aged patients. ON can be seen in isolation or in association with multiple sclerosis (MS). Highlighting the importance of this association is the fact that approximately 20% of patients with MS will present with ON. methods: review was conducted of the literature and pertinent clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Although the vision prognosis of patients with ON is excellent, with or without the use of corticosteroids, a minority of patients will suffer from significantly poor vision. ON may be the heralding manifestation of MS; the risk stratification for the future development of MS in patients presenting with ON can be determined by the number of white matter lesions on the baseline cerebral magnetic resonance imaging study. To date, 2 randomized, placebo-controlled studies have found that patients with a clinically isolated demyelinating syndrome, such as ON, at risk for MS, may benefit from the early institution of a disease-modifying drug.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 1.5
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

15/27. optic neuritis with concurrent etanercept and isoniazid therapy.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of optic neuritis associated with concurrent etanercept and isoniazid therapy. CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old man diagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis had received treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, sulfasalazine, oral methotrexate, leflunomide, and deflazacort. Four months prior to admission, he had a Disease Activity Score of 6.06; treatment with etanercept was considered. Three months prior to admission, because of evidence of latent tuberculosis, isoniazid 300 mg once daily and pyridoxine 50 mg once daily were prescribed. Treatment with subcutaneous etanercept 25 mg twice weekly was started 5 days after isoniazid was initiated. Two weeks prior to admission, the patient developed blurred vision in his left eye. Ten days later, his vision worsened and he was hospitalized. The visual acuity in both eyes was 0.7, and a campimetric examination was compatible with optic neuritis. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed lesions suggesting demyelinating lesions. The clinical course was consistent with bilateral optic neuritis. Etanercept was stopped, and isoniazid was replaced with rifampin 600 mg once daily. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone hemisuccinate 1 g/day for 5 days followed by oral prednisolone, resulting in a minor subjective improvement in left eye visual acuity. He then received oral prednisone for 3 weeks, slowly tapering to discontinuation. DISCUSSION: No physiologic factors could have predisposed this patient to develop optic neuritis. He was not diagnosed with a demyelinating disease or underlying systemic condition. The optic neuritis was unlikely to be an early manifestation of multiple sclerosis based on the clinical course and the negative results of the imaging tests. Furthermore, there was a close temporal correlation between the drug exposure and the onset of symptoms. After discontinuation of etanercept and isoniazid therapy, the patient's general condition improved. Use of the Naranjo probability scale indicated a possible relationship between optic neuritis and combined etanercept-isoniazid therapy. CONCLUSIONS: patients initiated on etanercept and isoniazid should be closely monitored for the development of adverse neurologic signs and effects. If optic neuritis is determined, etanercept and isoniazid should be discontinued immediately.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.5
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

16/27. Adalimumab-associated optic neuritis.

    We present, to our knowledge, the first published cases of optic neuritis associated with adalimumab, a medication in the class of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists. Approved in recent years by the FDA, adalimumab (Humira, Abbott laboratories; Abbott Park, IL) is a recombinant monoclonal antibody that targets and blocks the physiologic effects of TNF. Other TNF antagonists have had associations with optic neuritis and demyelinating events.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

17/27. Immunohistochemical evidence of inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine in a case of clinically isolated optic neuritis.

    BACKGROUND: optic neuritis (ON) is a demyelinating inflammation of the optic nerve that may occur as an isolated disease or related to multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little evidence of whether the immunohistochemistry of ON resembles that of typical cerebral MS lesions. methods: Pathologic optic nerves were obtained from a patient who died of causes unrelated to ON after clinical recovery from clinically isolated ON. Normal control optic nerves were obtained from an eye bank. Normal and pathologic tissues were probed with antibodies to pathologic proteins including myelin basic protein (MBP) fragment, the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), macrophage markers CD14 and CD64, nitrotyrosine, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). We also examined MBP, the oligodendrocyte marker cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CNPase), and glial fibrillary acidic protein. RESULTS: In the affected pathologic nerve, iNOS-positive macrophages/microglia, iNOS-positive astrocytes, COX-2, and nitrotyrosine were observed. iNOS and COX-2 were occasionally observed in the unaffected nerve.Decreased expression of MBP and CNPase was seen in the pathologic optic nerves, along with evidence of gliosis and ongoing myelin degradation indicated by the presence of MBP fragment. CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemistry of clinically isolated optic neuritis, as judged by this single case, resembles that of cerebral lesions of MS in showing abnormally high levels of iNOS and nitrotyrosine as well as other mediators of immune damage.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

18/27. neuromyelitis optica: two new cases and review of the literature.

    The clinical features of two recent cases of neuromyelitis optica are reviewed, along with 43 cases from the literature. Severe bilateral visual impairment, thoracic myelitis, prodromal symptoms suggesting a viral syndrome, and moderate pleocytosis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were characteristic. Respiratory failure developed in 22% of the cases. Seventy percent of patients improved neurologically, 14% had a poor neurological outcome, and 16% died in the acute stages. Predictors of a poor outcome were older age, marked CSF pleocytosis, and severe myelitis. Forty-two percent of patients had a recurrence of demyelinating disease after initial recovery, suggesting a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Fifty-eight percent of patients had a self-limited monophasic illness, consistent with a post-infectious encephalomyelitis. No clear predictors of patients at risk for recurrence were identified. CSF oligoclonal bands were absent in three patients with information available.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

19/27. optic neuritis and myelopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    The optic neuritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (S.L.E.) more frequently results in the persistence of a central scotoma or complete blindness after a single attack than demyelinating optic neuritis, although the initial clinical presentations may be identical. A significant number of patients, however, recover normal vision. optic neuritis may be the presenting symptom of S.L.E. and as myelopathy may also occur in the course of the disease, confusion with multiple sclerosis may result, especially if there are no arthritic, cutaneous nor visceral manifestations. We report a case of lupus optic neuritis associated with anticardiolipin antibodies and a circulating lupus anticoagulant and suggest these may be a marker for vasculitic optic neuritis and play a role in its aetiology.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)

20/27. Optic neuropathy and ophthalmoplegia in herpes zoster oticus.

    A 55-year-old man with herpes zoster oticus and minimal cutaneous involvement developed reversible optic neuropathy, and ocular motor and cerebellar abnormalities. Serologic changes confirmed infection with herpes zoster. A demyelinating process seems likely to have been responsible for these lesions. It is suggested that herpes zoster antibody titers should be measured whenever the syndrome of polyneuritis cranialis of acute onset is being investigated.
- - - - - - - - - -
ranking = 0.25
keywords = demyelinating
(Clic here for more details about this article)
<- Previous || Next ->


Leave a message about 'Optic Neuritis'


We do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Click here for the full disclaimer.