Cases reported "Optic Neuritis"

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1/52. Optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis and anti-thyroid autoantibodies.

    The optic-spinal form of multiple sclerosis (OSMS), characterized by recurrent involvement of optic nerve and spinal cord with rare brain magnetic resonance imaging lesions, is relatively common among Asians. While individual cases of OSMS with anti-thyroid autoantibodies (ATABs) have been reported, the frequency of ATAbs in OSMS and classical multiple sclerosis has not been studied. We studied serum ATAbs and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 46 Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis: 14 with OSMS, and 32 with non-OSMS. Six patients were positive for ATAbs: five women with OSMS and one man with non-OSMS. The frequency of ATAbs in OSMS (5/14) was significantly higher than that in non-OSMS (1/32; P = 0.007), but the frequency of ANA did not differ between OSMS (3/14) and non-OSMS (6/32; P = 0.99). There may be a pathogenetic link between anti-thyroid autoimmunity and a subgroup of OSMS in Japanese.
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ranking = 1
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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2/52. multiple sclerosis with extensive lesions left hemiplegia, mental dysfunction and retrobulbar neuritis.

    multiple sclerosis (MS) is usually diagnosed on the basis of the typical clinical course, with remission and exacerbation in multiple parts of the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made a large contribution to the diagnosis of patients with MS. But it is difficult to make a definite diagnosis due to clinical variability of the disease and variable MRI findings. We report the case of a 26-year-old woman who developed progressive left hemiplegia, mental dysfunction, and had extensive bilateral cerebral white matter lesions diagnosed by brain MRI. Complete recovery from the left hemiplegia followed the use of corticosteroid, and her brain MRI findings also improved after medication. Early in the clinical course it was difficult to differentiate between multiple sclerosis and granulomatous angiitis of the CNS. After recovery from the first episode of left hemiplegia and mental dysfunction, she developed acute visual disturbance five months after her first admission. Readmission followed and her retrobulbar neuritis was successfully treated by methylpredonisolone pulse therapy. In summary, she experienced two episodes of neurological deficit, had left hemiplegia and mental dysfunction associated with multiple lesions in bilateral cerebral white matter in brain MRI, and the left retrobulbar neuritis with delay of P100 by visual evoked potential study. Due to these two episodes we concluded that she had multiple sclerosis. Though the initial diagnosis was difficult, prompt treatment and close follow-up was important, since multiple sclerosis and granulomatous angiitis of the CNS can both recur.
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ranking = 0.44975651560485
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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3/52. Sequestrum-like appearance of a multiple sclerosis brain lesion on serial magnetic resonance images.

    Using serial magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored an unique lesion of the brain in a 15-year-old girl with clinically definite and laboratory-supported remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis. During initial phases of the disease course, cystic necrosis around the plaque was observed. Later, remyelination of the central core of the lesion was speculated, as similarities in signal intensity between the core and the normal appearing white matter were partially recovered both on the T1- and the T2-weighted images.
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ranking = 0.71428571428571
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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4/52. Postpartum optic neuritis: etiologic and pathophysiologic considerations.

    The clinical course of four patients with visual loss in the postpartum period due to acute optic neuritis is described. Factors that disclosed the underlying etiology and expression of disease are discussed. The clinical records of four women examined and managed for visual loss after uncomplicated pregnancies and term deliveries were reviewed. Neurodiagnostic examination, treatment modalities, and outcomes were assessed. These four women with varied and confounding medical histories, all with optic neuropathy, eventually were demonstrated to harbor demyelinating disease. Although visual loss in the postpartum period evokes differential diagnostic considerations, the authors' experience suggests that puerperal immune-mediated changes are responsible for activation of optic neuritis associated with relapsing multiple sclerosis.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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5/52. optic neuritis in children.

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics of optic neuritis in children, including final visual acuity and development of multiple sclerosis (MS). methods: charts were reviewed of all patients < 15 years of age who presented with optic neuritis to the Bascom Palmer eye Institute or the Miami Children's Hospital between 1986 and 1998. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. There was a slight female predilection in the study group (60%), with a mean age of 9.8 years at presentation. A preceding febrile illness within 2 weeks of visual symptoms was reported in 66% of patients. Initial visual acuity ranged from 20/15 to no light perception. Involvement was bilateral in 66% of patients, and disc swelling was present in 64% of involved eyes. Of the patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging, 33% had focal demyelinating lesions in the brain, and 63% of affected nerves were enlarged or enhanced with gadolinium. Eleven patients were treated with intravenous steroids. Final visual acuity was > or = 20/40 in 58.3% of eyes. Thirty percent of the patients had vision of finger counting or worse. Four (26%) patients developed MS. The mean age of patients with MS was 12 years, compared with 9 years in children who did not develop MS. patients with unilateral involvement had an excellent visual prognosis (100% > 20/40), but a higher rate of development of MS (75%). Two patients had positive serology for lyme disease. CONCLUSIONS: optic neuritis presents differently in children than in adults. Children typically have bilateral involvement with papillitis following an antecedent viral illness. Although visual prognosis is poorer in children than adults, the development of MS is less common in children. Children who present with unilateral involvement have a better visual prognosis; however, they also develop MS at a greater frequency than children with bilateral involvement. patients who developed MS were, on average, older at presentation with optic neuritis than those who did not develop MS.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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6/52. Acute asymmetric upper nasal quandrantanopsia caused by a chiasmal colloid cyst in a patient with multiple sclerosis and bilateral retrobulbar neuritis.

    PURPOSE: To report a patient with multiple sclerosis and a history of sequential bilateral retrobulbar neuritis, who developed new onset of highly asymmetric upper quadrantanopsia. DESIGN: Interventional case report. METHOD: A 36-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis and bilateral retrobulbar neuritis developed an acute asymmetric upper nasal quadrantanopsia. RESULTS: magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a cyst that caused chiasmal compression and bilateral visual field defects. CONCLUSION: New onset of bilateral visual field defects in a patient with diagnosed multiple sclerosis is likely to be caused by a new attack of the demyelinating disease. In this case, a newly diagnosed chiasmal colloid cyst was the cause of visual field defects.
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ranking = 1
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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7/52. optic neuritis with transient total blindness during lactation(1).

    BACKGROUND: lactation-induced blindness is a rare but devastating puerperal complication. There are few reported cases and no consistent associated disease processes historically identified. This case illustrates lactation-associated optic neuritis as an early identifier of multiple sclerosis. CASE: A nulliparous woman underwent a term vaginal delivery complicated only by chorioamnionitis. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics, which included spontaneous bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis. Her postpartum course was uncomplicated, and she was discharged on postpartum day 2 with her infant. She was readmitted on postpartum day 16 completely blind. Evaluation revealed bilateral optic neuritis. Symptoms were initiated and exacerbated during nursing. Transitory waxing and waning of her visual deficits were noted after aggressive steroid therapy and discontinuing nursing. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. CONCLUSION: multiple sclerosis must be considered as an etiology for acute puerperal lactation-associated blindness when there is no clear anatomic or infectious cause.
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ranking = 0.28995130312097
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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8/52. Schilder's disease: case study with serial neuroimaging.

    Schilder's myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis is a rare sporadic demyelinating disease that usually affects children between 5 and 14 years old. The disease often mimics intracranial neoplasm or abscess. We report a 9-year-old girl with Schilder's disease who presented with left hemiparesis. Cranial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed large lesions in the subcortical white matter of the occipital and parietal lobes of both hemispheres that were indistinguishable from an abscess. A cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal band test was found positive. A diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was then suspected. Serial MRI examinations revealed regression of parenchymal lesions, but there were new developing corpus callosum lesions. After 2 months, the patient presented with right-sided visual loss. MRI examination revealed a right optic nerve lesion. The patient had a dramatic clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Subsequent control MRI examination revealed regression of both lesions. At 24 months of observation, the patient continued to do well without any complaints or neurologic sequelae.
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ranking = 0.0042370174066851
keywords = sclerosis
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9/52. multiple sclerosis.

    multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurologic disease of young people affecting between 350 and 450,000 individuals in the united states. Substantial advances have been made in the diagnostic assessment and treatment interventions over the last 10 years such that we are now able effectively to treat both the disease process and the associated symptomatic complaints associated with MS. Most patients consult with their primary care physician at the time when the first clinical manifestations of MS emerge. These physicians play a central role in the early identification and treatment of patients with MS. This article emphasizes the expanding diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities evolving for the MS patient and the crucial role played by primary care physicians in collaboration with neurologists in the coordination of the initial diagnostic and treatment plan.
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ranking = 0.021185087033425
keywords = sclerosis
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10/52. multiple sclerosis-like disease secondary to alpha interferon.

    PURPOSE: To describe bilateral optic neuritis that occurred as an adverse effect of recombinant and natural interferon alpha administration. methods: Report of two cases. Case 1, a 62-year-old woman, developed bilateral optic neuritis with decreased sensation of vibration and increased deep tendon reflex in the lower extremities after a seven-month use of recombinant interferon alpha-2a for chronic active hepatitis c. Case 2, a 29-year-old woman, developed bilateral optic neuritis combined with numbness of the lower extremities as well as bowel and bladder dysfunction after a 22-month use of recombinant interferon alpha-2b for chronic myelogenous leukemia. After a two-month interruption of interferon administration, natural interferon alpha was given but followed by another episode of the same neurological manifestations. RESULTS: In both cases, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple small high-intensity areas in the cerebral white matter and spinal cord, while cerebrospinal fluid examination disclosed mononuclear cell increase and protein elevation including myelin basic protein, all of which simulated the features of multiple sclerosis. The two patients underwent several courses of pulse corticosteroid therapy, each course consisting of three days of methylprednisolone 1000 mg daily, resulting in visual recovery to some extent. CONCLUSIONS: optic neuritis in combination with other neurological signs, simulating multiple sclerosis, should be included in the list of adverse effects of recombinant and natural interferon alpha administration.
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ranking = 0.30266235534103
keywords = multiple sclerosis, sclerosis
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