Cases reported "Orbital Fractures"

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11/284. Missed orbital wall blow-out fracture as a cause of post-enucleation socket syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: Post-enucleation socket syndrome (PESS: deep upper lid sulcus, ptosis or upper lid retraction, enophthalmos and lower lid laxity) is a well-recognised complication of a volume-deficient anophthalmic socket. A patient requiring enucleation following severe ocular trauma may have an underlying orbital wall blow-out fracture which if overlooked can cause severe volume deficit with poor cosmesis and limited prosthesis motility. PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of an undiagnosed blow-out fracture in patients with PESS and a history of relevant trauma. methods: medical records and orbital computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed for all patients presenting with PESS and a history of relevant trauma. RESULTS: Undiagnosed blow-out fractures were found in 15 (33%) of 45 patients presenting between August 1993 and December 1996. These were significant enough to warrant surgical repair in 13 (29%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that any patient presenting with PESS and a history of relevant trauma should be considered to have an orbital wall blow-out fracture until proven otherwise by CT scanning of the orbit. Similarly any patient requiring enucleation following severe ocular trauma should undergo CT scanning to rule out a coexisting blow-out fracture which could be repaired at the time of enucleation.
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12/284. Mechanisms of orbital floor fractures: a clinical, experimental, and theoretical study.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the two accepted mechanisms of the orbital blow-out fracture (the hydraulic and the buckling theories) from a clinical, experimental, and theoretical standpoint. methods: Clinical cases in which blow-out fractures resulted from both a pure hydraulic mechanism and a pure buckling mechanism are presented. Twenty-one intact orbital floors were obtained from human cadavers. A metal rod was dropped, experimentally, onto each specimen until a fracture was produced, and the energy required in each instance was calculated. A biomathematical model of the human bony orbit, depicted as a thin-walled truncated conical shell, was devised. Two previously published (by the National Aeronautics Space Administration) theoretical structural engineering formulas for the fracture of thin-walled truncated conical shells were used to predict the energy required to fracture the bone of the orbital floor via the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms. RESULTS: Experimentally, the mean energy required to fracture the bone of the human cadaver orbital floor directly was 78 millijoules (mj) (range, 29-127 mj). Using the engineering formula for the hydraulic theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 71 mj (range, 38-120 mj); for the buckling theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 68 mj (range, 40-106 mj). CONCLUSION: Through this study, we have experimentally determined the amount of energy required to fracture the bone of the human orbital floor directly and have provided support for each mechanism of the orbital blow-out fracture from a clinical and theoretical basis.
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13/284. Internal orbital fractures in the pediatric age group: characterization and management.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the specific characteristics and management of internal orbital fractures in the pediatric population. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-four pediatric patients between the ages of 1 and 18 years with internal orbital ("blowout") fractures. methods: Records of pediatric patients presenting with internal orbital fractures over a 5-year period were reviewed, including detailed preoperative and postoperative evaluations, surgical management, and medical management. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ocular motility restriction, enophthalmos, nausea and vomiting, and postoperative complications. RESULTS: Floor fractures were by far the most common fracture type (71%). Eleven of 34 patients required surgical intervention for ocular motility restriction. Eight were trapdoor-type fractures with soft-tissue incarceration; five had nausea and vomiting. Early surgical intervention (<2 weeks) resulted in a more complete return of ocular motility compared with the late intervention group. CONCLUSIONS: Trapdoor-type fractures, usually involving the orbital floor, are common in the pediatric age group. These fractures may be small with minimal soft-tissue incarceration, making the findings on computed tomography scans quite subtle at times. Marked motility restriction and nausea/vomiting should alert the physician to the possibility of a trapdoor-type fracture and the need for prompt surgical intervention.
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14/284. Mechanisms of orbital floor fractures: a clinical, experimental, and theoretical study.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the two accepted mechanisms of the orbital blowout fracture (the hydraulic and the buckling theories) from a clinical, experimental, and theoretical standpoint. methods: Clinical cases in which blowout fractures resulted from both a pure hydraulic mechanism and a pure buckling mechanism are presented. Twenty-one intact orbital floors were obtained from human cadavers. A metal rod was dropped, experimentally, onto each specimen until a fracture was produced, and the energy required in each instance was calculated. A biomathematical model of the human bony orbit, depicted as a thin-walled truncated conical shell, was devised. Two previously published (by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration) theoretical structural engineering formulas for the fracture of thin-walled truncated conical shells were used to predict the energy required to fracture the bone of the orbital floor via the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms. RESULTS: Experimentally, the mean energy required to fracture the bone of the human cadaver orbital floor directly was 78 millijoules (mJ) (range, 29-127 mJ). Using the engineering formula for the hydraulic theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 71 mJ (range, 38-120 mJ); for the buckling theory, the predicted theoretical energy is 68 mJ (range, 40-106 mJ). CONCLUSION: Through this study, we have experimentally determined the amount of energy required to fracture the bone of the human orbital floor directly and have provided support for each mechanism of the orbital blowout fracture from a clinical and theoretical basis.
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15/284. Sino-orbital fistula: two case reports.

    A fistula between the paranasal sinuses and the orbit as a late complication of orbital fractures is rare and may present with intermittent symptoms due to air passing into the orbit. A case note review of two patients with sino-orbital fistula is presented. Two patients, 23- and 30-year-old males, presented with intermittent symptoms of globe displacement, diplopia or discomfort months after repair of an orbital floor fracture with a synthetic orbital floor implant. The symptoms occurred after nose blowing. They were both cured by removal of the implant and partial removal of the tissue surrounding the implant. A sino-orbital fistula may complicate the otherwise routine repair of an orbital floor fracture, but may be cured by removal of the implant and part of the surrounding pseudocapsule.
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16/284. Intranasal endoscopy-assisted repair of medial orbital wall fractures.

    The repair of medial orbital blow-out fractures remains a challenging surgical procedure for most surgeons. Endoscopic intranasal visualization of the medial orbital wall or lamina papyracea is a technique familiar to most otolaryngologists. This endoscopic view would allow for confirmation of orbital content reduction and bimanual manipulation of an orbital implant. To determine the effectiveness of a new surgical technique, a cadaveric study was performed to evaluate the ability to (1) reduce the herniated orbital contents and (2) restore the normal anatomic orbital configuration and volume with the addition of an orbital implant. Excellent visualization of the fracture was achieved in all cadaveric specimens. In addition, endoscopic intranasal visualization of the medial orbital wall greatly facilitated the anatomic reduction of orbital contents and proper placement of the orbital implant. The surgical technique is described and a clinical case is reported in which this endoscopic technique was effectively used. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2000;2:269-273
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17/284. Cadaveric study of blood supply to the lower intraorbital fat: etiologic relevance to the complication of anaerobic cellulitis in orbital floor fracture.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although orbital fractures are common, orbital cellulitis rarely develops following orbital fracture. We hypothesized that compromise of the blood supply to the intraorbital fat during orbital floor fracture is responsible for this condition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the lower intraorbital fat is supplied by a branch of the infraorbital artery along the orbital groove or canal on the orbital floor. MATERIALS AND methods: We dissected 14 orbits from seven fixed human cadavers and 12 orbits from six fresh cadaver heads following dye injection into the maxillary artery. The sites of dye-filled vessels branching from the infraorbital artery supplying the lower intraorbital fat were measured and plotted on a two-dimensional orbital floor graph. RESULTS: A main branch of the infraorbital artery rose through the medial orbital floor to supply the lower intraorbital fat in all of the cadaver orbits. The sites of the branching point of the vessel ranged from 0 to 5 mm (mean, 2.2 mm; n = 14) medial to the line connecting the infraorbital foramen and the infraorbital groove. The shortest distance measured from the branching point to the orbital rim ranged from 3 to 20 mm (mean, 14.1 mm; n = 14). This suggests that if orbital fracture were to occur around the infraorbital groove or canal, this vascular pedicle would be in danger of being incarcerated by bone fragments. CONCLUSION: Our cadaveric investigation revealed that the lower intraorbital fat is supplied by a branch of the infraorbital artery along the infraorbital groove or canal on the orbital floor. This finding suggests that compromised blood supply to the intraorbital fat may cause anaerobic cellulitis or enophthalmos.
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18/284. Barotraumatic blowout fracture of the orbit.

    We report a rare case of a barotraumatic blowout fracture of the orbit. A 32-year-old woman presented with sudden swelling of the right orbital region after vigorous nose blowing. Computed tomography scan revealed a blowout fracture of the medial wall of the right orbit with orbital emphysema and herniation of the orbital soft tissue. She was treated with prednisolone and an antibiotic, and did not show diplopia or visual disturbance. Three different theories have so far been proposed to explain the mechanism of blowout fractures, globe-to-wall contact theory, hydraulic theory, and bone conduction theory. The present case indicates that blowout fractures of the orbit can be induced solely by a sudden change of pressure, thereby suggesting the validity of the hydraulic theory.
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19/284. A case of traumatic globe luxation.

    We observed a case of traumatic globe luxation. A 26-year-old man who was sitting at the back seat of the car without fastening his safety belt was admitted to the emergency room after an automobile accident. He was in semi-comatose condition. His left globe was dislocated anteriorly, and the lids were tightly closed behind it. No laceration was observed in cornea, sclera and extraocular muscles. The pupil was dilated and did not respond to light stimulation. Computerized tomography scan analysis revealed a normal optic nerve, but multiple fractures in the nasal, inferior and temporal walls of the orbit and in the nasal bone. Phthisis of the eye was detected by the end of second month. We believe that the back seats of automobiles should also be furnished with air bags for better security of passengers.
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20/284. strabismus due to flap tear of a rectus muscle.

    PURPOSE: To present a previously unreported avulsion-type injury of the rectus muscle, usually the inferior rectus, and detail its diagnosis and operative repair. methods: Thirty-five patients underwent repair of flap tears of 42 rectus muscles. The muscle abnormality was often subtle, with narrowing or thinning of the remaining attached global layer of muscle. The detached flap of external (orbital) muscle was found embedded in surrounding orbital fat and connective tissue. Retrieval and repair were performed in each case. RESULTS: Fourteen patients had orbital fractures, 7 had blunt trauma with no fracture, and 9 had suspected trauma but did not undergo computed tomographic scan. Five patients experienced this phenomenon following retinal detachment repair. Diagnostically, the predominant motility defect in 25 muscles was limitation toward the field of action of the muscle, presumably as a result of a tether created by the torn flap. These tethers simulated muscle palsy. Seventeen muscles were restricted away from their field of action, simulating entrapment. The direction taken by the flap during healing determined the resultant strabismus pattern. All patients presenting with gaze limitation toward an orbital fracture had flap tears. The worst results following flap tear repair were seen in patients who had undergone orbital fracture repair before presentation, patients who had undergone previous attempts at strabismus repair, and patients who experienced the longest intervals between the precipitating event and the repair. The best results were obtained in patients who underwent simultaneous fracture and strabismus repair or early strabismus repair alone. CONCLUSIONS: Avulsion-type flap tears of the extraocular muscles are a common cause of strabismus after trauma, and after repair for retinal detachment. Early repair produces the best results, but improvement is possible despite long delay.
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