Cases reported "Orofaciodigital Syndromes"

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1/20. Discordance of oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 in monozygotic twin girls.

    The oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) includes limb, facial, intraoral malformations and the gene for the disorder was recently mapped to Xp22.3-p22.2. We report on monozygotic twin girls discordant for OFD1. Monozygosity is supported by placental pathology (monochorionic diamniotic) and molecular studies with probability of dizygosity <1 x 10(-6). The affected twin has oral cavity abnormalities including median cleft lip, cleft palate, lobulated hamartomatous tongue, aberrant hyperplastic oral frenula, alveolar notches, and absent lateral incisors. Facial manifestations include telecanthus, hypoplastic alae nasi, and transient neonatal facial milia. The patient also has short and deviated fingers with partial cutaneous syndactyly. At 10 years, she has not had central nervous system or kidney problems. X-inactivation study revealed similar X-inactivation patterns in the lymphoblasts of both twins. We conclude that skewed X-inactivation is an unlikely cause for the discordance, which is more likely due to a postzygotic mutation in the affected twin.
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2/20. Naumoff short-rib polydactyly syndrome compounded with Mohr oral-facial-digital syndrome.

    A stillborn baby boy had findings of severe constitutional dwarfism with short limbs, short ribs, and polydactyly that were consistent with Naumoff (type III) short-rib polydactyly syndrome. He also had additional congenital anomalies, including cleft palate, notching of the upper lip, small tongue with accessory sublingual tissue. These oral and pharyngeal anomalies were consistent with Mohr (type II) oral-facial-digital syndrome. We suggest the stillborn infant represented a compound of Naumoff short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS-III) and Mohr oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS-II).
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3/20. Prenatal sonographic findings in a case of Varadi-Papp syndrome.

    OBJECTIVES: We aim to describe a case with oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFDS VI) or Varadi-Papp syndrome where the only prenatal findings were cleft lip and palate and a primum type atrial septal defect (ASD). methods: A 24-year-old pregnant woman, gravida 1 para 0, attended the prenatal clinic for a routine visit at 16 weeks of gestation. Her medical and family history was unremarkable. There was no history of consanguinity, drug or teratogen exposure. Her triple screening test and other routine biochemical and haematological blood tests did not reveal any abnormal results. During routine prenatal sonographic examination at the 16th gestational week, cleft lip and palate including secondary palate on the right side of the face was detected and ASD was suspected. RESULTS: After delivery, prenatally diagnosed cleft lip and palate and primum ASD were confirmed. Postnatally, minimal micrognathia, posteriorly rotated low-set ears, minimal hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, nystagmus, esotropia, broad nasal tip, intraoral frenula and lobed tongue, shawl scrotum and duplicated nail of the index fingers of both hands were also observed. Radiological examination showed partial agenesis of the corpus callosum and partially duplicated terminal phalanx of the index fingers. A diagnosis of Varadi-Papp syndrome was formulated. At one year of age, there was short stature and delayed mental and motor development. CONCLUSION: Understanding the limitations of prenatal ultrasound is very important for the genetic counselling of prospective parents, since major ultrasound findings can be associated with other minor or undetectable features.
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4/20. Clinical, molecular, and genotype-phenotype correlation studies from 25 cases of oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1: a French and Belgian collaborative study.

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is characterised by an X linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in males. Clinical features include facial dysmorphism with oral, tooth, and distal abnormalities, polycystic kidney disease, and central nervous system malformations. Large interfamilial and intrafamilial clinical variability has been widely reported, and 18 distinct mutations have been previously reported within OFD1. A French and Belgian collaborative study collected 25 cases from 16 families. OFD1 was analysed using direct sequencing and phenotype-genotype correlation was performed using chi2 test. X inactivation studies were performed on blood lymphocytes. In 11 families, 11 novel mutations, including nine frameshift, one nonsense, and one missense mutation were identified, which spanned nine different exons. A combination of our results with previously reported cases showed that the majority of mutations (65.5%) was located in exons 3, 8, 9, 13, and 16. There was phenotype-genotype correlation between (a) polycystic kidney disease and splice mutations; (b) mental retardation and mutations located in exons 3, 8, 9, 13, and 16; and (c) tooth abnormalities and mutations located in coiled coil domains. Comparing the phenotype of the families with a pathogenic mutation to families with absence of OFD1 mutation, polycystic kidneys and short stature were significantly more frequent in the group with no OFD1 mutation, whereas lingual hamartomas were significantly more frequent in the group with OFD1 mutation. Finally, an X inactivation study showed non-random X inactivation in a third of the samples. Differential X inactivation between mothers and daughters in two families with high intrafamilial variability was of particular interest. Slight phenotype-genotype correlations were established, and X inactivation study showed that skewed X inactivation could be partially involved in the pathogenesis of intrafamilial clinical variability.
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5/20. Orofaciodigital syndrome with cerebral dysgenesis.

    orofaciodigital syndromes (OFD) are a group of diseases classified according to the phenotype and the mode of inheritance. We report on a fetus presenting with some features of the OFDs but with additional global cerebral dysgenesis. ultrasonography at 19 weeks of pregnancy disclosed hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres with a large intrahemispheric cyst, as well as dysmorphic facial features and brachy-syndactyly IV-V. Fetal brain MRI confirmed these features and disclosed additional morphological anomalies: Agenesis of the vermis, complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, pachygyria of the left hemisphere. Pathological examination showed a disproportionate fetus with large head and short limbs. Dysmorphic features included hypertelorism, broad nasal root, long philtrum, severe micrognathia, microstomia, cleft palate, and lobulated tongue. Radiographs showed distal malformations of the four limbs. Neuropathological examination showed a severe disturbance of the architecture of both hemispheres, more severe on the right side, with four cystic structures located between the hemispheres. Olfactory stalks, mammillary bodies, and midline structures were absent. cerebellum and brainstem were hypoplastic. On the right hemisphere as on most part of the left one, microscopic findings displayed a complete disruption of the developing mantle with disturbance of the neuronal migration. The present fetus fulfilled the diagnosis of OFD syndrome: Dysmorphic features, cleft palate and lobulate tongue and polysyndactylies of the feet and hands. The cerebral involvement would make it closer to OFD type VI, but brain malformations were far more severe in the present case, with complex and generalized cortical dysgenesis, evoking a disturbance occurring at a very early stage of the embryogenesis.
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6/20. Twin fetuses with abnormalities that overlap with three midline malformation complexes.

    Twin fetuses aborted at an estimated gestational age of 145 days were concordant for oral, facial, skeletal, and central nervous system malformations. The twins were discordant for other anomalies including cardiac defects, polydactyly, and malrotated short bowel. The combination of malformations observed overlaps with that of the oral-facial-digital syndrome, hydrolethalus syndrome, and pallister-hall syndrome. The problem of phenotypic overlap between these syndromes is discussed.
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7/20. Beemer-Langer syndrome with manifestations of an orofaciodigital syndrome.

    We report on an infant girl with hydrops, macrocephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, median cleft lip and alveolar ridge, grooved palate, accessory frenula, small tongue, milia, severe rib and limb shortness, brachydactyly, talipes equinovarus, Dandy-Walker malformation, accessory spleen, unfixed mesentery, ectopic pancreas, and renal cysts. This patient resembles seven previously reported patients with the Beemer-Langer syndrome, a distinct lethal short rib syndrome characterized by hydrops, markedly short ribs and limbs, median cleft lip with or without cleft palate, flat face, and macrocephaly. Polydactyly is usually absent. Our patient's oral anomalies suggest an orofaciodigital syndrome, but the severe rib and limb shortness distinguish it from those disorders.
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8/20. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (Varadi syndrome): further clinical delineation.

    Cerebellar anomalies are consistent findings in patients with the oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (Varadi syndrome) in addition to variable facial and oral changes, and polysyndactyly of hands and feet. We report 3 unrelated patients with this entity who have a hypoplastic cerebellar vermis shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as clinical signs of cerebellar defect. Polydactyly of the hands is characterized by a central Y-shaped metacarpal. Clinically recurrent episodes of tachypnea and hyperpnea are remarkable. Postnatal growth is delayed with short stature in all 3 patients possibly due to growth hormone deficiency in one of them. In contrast to reported patients who are all severely mentally retarded, one of our patients is of normal intelligence. Type VI oral-facial-digital syndrome is an autosomal-recessive trait and may be detected prenatally.
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9/20. Orofaciodigital syndrome type IV (Mohr-Majewski syndrome) with severe expression expanding the known spectrum of anomalies.

    We present a male infant with hypertelorism, median pseudo-cleft of the upper lip and cleft palate, lobulated tongue, hypoplastic larynx and epiglottis, mesomelic shortening of limbs with particularly short and broad tibiae, polydactyly of the upper limbs, severely hypoplastic external genitalia with anorchidism, anal atresia, severe congenital heart defect, and renal agenesis. These features show considerable overlap with severe Majewski type short rib-polydactyly syndrome and so expand the known spectrum of anomalies in orofaciodigital syndrome type IV.
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10/20. Orofaciodigital syndrome type IV: report of a patient.

    We describe a further patient with the orofaciodigital syndrome type IV. The clinical characteristics include lobulated tongue, pseudo-cleft of lip, pre- and postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet, severe talipes equinovarus, mesomelic limb shortness associated with tibial hypoplasia, and severe bilateral deafness. Five similar cases including the present patient are now on record. Autosomal recessive inheritance is likely.
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