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1/2. Clinical diversity in acute necrotizing encephalopathy.

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is a novel disease entity, proposed by Mizuguchi et al in 1995, that shows a characteristic selective and symmetric involvement of the thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. It usually leaves sequelae. The etiology of acute necrotizing encephalopathy is unknown. We describe here six patients aged 6 months to 5 years (four boys and two girls). Four cases were typical, and the patients' cranial computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging showed irreversible symmetric involvement of the thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Three of the patients died, and one was left with severe sequelae. In the other two patients, who had selective reversible thalamic involvement, the disease was mild; one also showed transient unilateral thalamic involvement. These patients recovered completely. We consider the illness in these two patients to fit the criteria of the mild form of acute necrotizing encephalopathy. We believe that acute necrotizing encephalopathy has some clinical diversity, as is seen in other neurologic disorders, and that a mild form could exist.
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keywords = acute necrotizing, necrotizing
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2/2. Combined therapy with hypothermia and anticytokine agents in influenza A encephalopathy.

    Two children with influenza A-related encephalopathy were treated with a combination of mild hypothermia (deep body temperature of the forehead: 35 degrees C) and anticytokine agents (high-dose methylprednisolone and ulinastatin), while receiving amantadine. One of the cases exhibited acute necrotizing encephalopathy on computed tomography (CT). Although no severe complications occurred, correctable hypokalemia and hyperglycemia occurred in both cases. Both patients recovered without any neurological sequelae. Our therapeutic protocol appears to be effective for managing influenza A-related encephalopathy.
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ranking = 0.14281696952279
keywords = acute necrotizing, necrotizing
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