Cases reported "Osteoarthritis, Knee"

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1/21. Fracture of the femoral component associated with polyethylene wear and osteolysis after total knee arthroplasty.

    Fracture of the femoral component associated with polyethylene wear and osteolysis after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has not been well reported before. A 63-year-old man with osteoarthritis of the right knee underwent TKA with a New Jersey LCS Knee, with cementing on the tibia and patella but not on the femoral component. After 42 months, in addition to wearing of polyethylene of the tibia and patella, severe osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyle was noted. osteonecrosis caused loss of osseous support of the medial flange of the femoral component, and the bone ingrowth of the central and lateral flange to the distal femur was so good that it overcame the yield stress of the metal of the femoral component and caused fracture of the femoral component. The osteolytic area was filled with autogenous iliac bone, and a new femoral component was inserted and cemented. The patient's condition became satisfactory with relief of pain. Although uncommon, fracture of the femoral component does occur associated with polyethylene wear and osteolysis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/21. Nonunion of tibial stress fractures in patients with deformed arthritic knees. Treatment using modular total knee arthroplasty.

    In two years we treated four women with ununited stress fractures of their proximal tibial diaphyses. They all had arthritis and valgus deformity. The stress fractures had been treated elsewhere by non-operative means in three patients and by open reduction and internal fixation in one, but had failed to unite. After treatment with a modular total knee prosthesis with a long tibial stem extension, all the fractures united. A modular total knee prosthesis is suitable for the rare and difficult problem of ununited tibial stress fractures in patients with deformed arthritic knees since it corrects the deformity and the adverse biomechanics at the fracture site, stabilises the fracture and treats the arthritis.
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ranking = 9.3695885827612
keywords = stress fracture, fracture
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3/21. Primary total knee arthroplasty for supracondylar/condylar femoral fracture in osteoarthritic knees.

    Supracondylar or condylar femoral fractures require extended treatment and often result in loss of knee range of motion. We present 3 cases in which femoral fractures and preexisting painful knees secondary to osteoarthritis were treated using total knee arthroplasty with a stemmed femoral implant. The patients were all women aged 83, 84, and 87 years old. All fractures united within 3 months, and the patients could walk with 1 cane within 2 months. Primary total knee arthroplasty should be considered as a treatment for supracondylar/condylar femoral fractures in osteoarthritic knees.
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ranking = 4
keywords = fracture
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4/21. Periprosthetic tibial fractures after cementless low contact stress total knee arthroplasty.

    periprosthetic fractures are a recognized complication of total knee arthroplasty. Fractures may occur intraoperatively or postoperatively, and risk factors have been identified that may predispose an individual to such a complication. We report 7 cases of periprosthetic tibial fractures after low contact stress total knee arthroplasty, a complication encountered by the senior author (D.E.B.) only after a change in practice from a cemented implant to a cementless one. In light of this previously unreported complication in our unit, we attempted to identify common features within this group of patients that may have contributed to fracture occurrence. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant (P<.005) risk of periprosthetic tibial fracture in patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee. Age, gender, and diagnosis did not appear to increase the risk of fracture significantly. All patients displayed evidence of reduced bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and femoral neck regions on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. patients with a preoperative neutral or valgus knee and local evidence of osteopenia represent a high-risk group, in whom particular care in alignment should be taken. In this group, it may be preferable to have the tibial component inserted with cement fixation.
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ranking = 4.5
keywords = fracture
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5/21. Arthroscopic removal of a loose body osteophyte fragment after superior patellar dislocation with locked osteophytes.

    The authors report the case of a loose body from a fractured osteophyte after a superiorly dislocated patella with locked osteophytes. Few cases of superiorly dislocated patellae have been reported in the literature and no cases of osteophyte fracture fragments after locked osteophytes with subsequent arthroscopic loose body removal have been reported. The loose body was removed and the distal pole of the patella was debrided arthroscopically. This patient and the majority of previously reported cases, herein reviewed, had patella alta with pre-existing patellofemoral arthrosis. Patella alta in the face of patellofemoral arthrosis should be considered a risk factor for loose body formation. Therefore, recurrent superior patellar dislocation and locking osteophytes may be a relative indication for pre-emptive arthroscopic debridement of locked osteophytes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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6/21. Tibial plateau stress fracture: a complication of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty using 4 guide pinholes.

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has gained popularity recently as a treatment for unicompartmental tibiofemoral non inflammatory arthritis. Tibial plateau stress fracture after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) through guide pin holes placed in the proximal tibia has not been previously reported. In each case in this report, the compressive strength of the proximal tibia was reduced by the drilling of multiple holes for the placement of guide pins and holes for the lugs of the tibia component resulting in fracture through these holes between 3 and 18 weeks (median 8 weeks) post-operatively. In at least one case, the medial tibial cortex was violated by one pin. All cases required revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is intuitive to caution against the use of multiple guide holes in the proximal tibia in UKA. If 3 or more hole pins are deemed necessary, surgeons must be aware of the potential for stress fracture and monitor patients accordingly. Peripheral pins that infract the medial tibial cortex should also be avoided.
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ranking = 7.2453616423668
keywords = stress fracture, fracture
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7/21. Fracture of the femoral component of a Brigham unicompartmental knee: a case report.

    We report the failure of a femoral component in a unicompartmental knee replacement 6 years after implantation. The implant fractured 15 mm from the anterior tip, and scanning electron microscopy confirmed fatigue to be the cause of failure. The clinical and laboratory findings are presented, and the causes and implications of this mode of implant failure are discussed.
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ranking = 0.50338374775564
keywords = fracture, fatigue
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8/21. Ender nailing for supracondylar fracture of the femur after total knee arthroplasty: five case reports.

    We studied 5 women with supracondylar fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The mean age at fracture was 67.4 years. Four patients had chronic rheumatoid arthritis, and 1 had osteoarthritis. The range of motion, knee score, femorotibial angle, and component alignment were investigated. Flexion was slightly decreased after Ender nailing, but extension only changed in 1 patient. The knee score decreased, but all patients were ambulatory. The femorotibial angle changed in all patients. Measurement of femoral component alignment showed a postoperative change of angle alpha (1 degrees to 11 degrees ) and angle gamma (0 degrees to 9 degrees ). Union was achieved in all patients. Ender nailing is an acceptable method of treatment for supracondylar fractures of the femur after TKA if the nails can be inserted deeply into the femoral condyles.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = fracture
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9/21. Recurrent dislocation of total knee arthroplasty: an unusual cause.

    We report an unusual case of recurrent dislocation of posterior stabilized total knee arthroplasty (TKA) secondary to fracture of the polyethylene insert. Recurrent dislocation occurred 21 months after primary TKA. Fractured polyethylene insert was noted as an abnormal radiolucent shadow on postoperative radiographs and was confirmed by an arthrogram. At revision surgery, disintegration of the insert, including the tibial post, was found. We recommend careful scrutiny of the integrity of the polyethylene insert at the time of follow-up evaluation in cases of TKA dislocation.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = fracture
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10/21. arthroplasty in treating knee osteoarthritis and proximal tibia stress fracture.

    The authors describe two cases of severely angulated tibial non-unions after proximal tibia stress fractures associated with ipsilateral osteoarthritis treated with modular knee endoprosthesis with a long tibial stem to stabilize non-union fragments. During the procedure, no additional osteosynthesis or bone grafting was added. Both non-unions healed after 6 months with no post-operative complications. The authors suggest implantation of modular knee endoprosthesis, as a single procedure, in treatment of proximal tibia non-union after a stress fracture as a result of severe varus/valgus deformity. It provides a solution for osteoarthritis treatment, axis correction and non-union osteosynthesis.
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ranking = 6.7453616423668
keywords = stress fracture, fracture
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