Cases reported "Osteoarthritis"

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1/18. Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts of different etiologies: diagnosis by CT and MR imaging.

    Intraspinal synovial cysts arises from a facet joint and may cause radicular symptoms due to nerve root compression. In the present study, three surgically and histologically proved cases of synovial cyst of the lumbar spine with different etiology are described. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the imaging features of various etiologies of intraspinal synovial cysts allowing a correct preoperative diagnosis. review of the literature enables us to say that to our knowledge, there is no reported article collecting the imaging findings of intraspinal synovial cysts with different etiologies. Only single cases with rheumatoid arthritic or traumatic origin have been reported to date. We believe that computed tomography and particularly magnetic resonance imaging are the methods of choice which provide the most valuable diagnostic information.
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2/18. Low power laser therapy and analgesic action.

    OBJECTIVE: The semiconductor or laser diode (GaAs, 904 nm) is the most appropriate choice in pain reduction therapy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Low-power density laser acts on the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis, increasing the change of PGG2 and PGH2 into PG12 (also called prostacyclin, or epoprostenol). The last is the main product of the arachidonic acid into the endothelial cells and into the smooth muscular cells of vessel walls, that have a vasodilating and anti-inflammatory action. methods: Treatment was performed on 372 patients (206 women and 166 men) during the period between May 1987 and January 1997. The patients, whose ages ranged from 25 to 70 years, with a mean age of 45 years, suffered from rheumatic, degenerative, and traumatic pathologies as well as cutaneous ulcers. The majority of patients had been seen by orthopedists and rheumatologists and had undergone x-ray examination. All patients had received drug-based treatment and/or physiotherapy with poor results; 5 patients had also been irradiated with He:Ne and CO2 lasers. Two-thirds were experiencing acute symptomatic pain, while the others suffered long-term pathology with recurrent crises. We used a pulsed diode laser, GaAs 904 nm wavelength once per day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 2-day interval. The average number of applications was 12. We irradiated the trigger points, access points to the joint, and striated muscles adjacent to relevant nerve roots. RESULTS: We achieved very good results, especially in cases of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the cervical vertebrae, sport-related injuries, epicondylitis, and cutaneous ulcers, and with cases of osteoarthritis of the coxa. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with 904-nm diode laser has substantially reduced the symptoms as well as improved the quality of life of these patient, ultimately postponing the need for surgery.
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keywords = nerve
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3/18. Hypertrophic dens resulting in cervical myelopathy: histologic features of the hypertrophic dens.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of a 43-year-old woman who had hypertrophic dens in the developmentally narrow atlas ring that resulted in cervical myelopathy. OBJECTIVES: To present histologic findings of the hypertrophic dens, which was excised en block the transoral approach, and to discuss the pathogenesis of the hypertrophic change of the dens. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Few cases have been reported of cervical myelopathy associated with hypertrophic dens, and there have been no previous reports describing the histologic features of hypertrophic dens. methods: Clinical data were reviewed from the patient's chart, and histologic features of the hypertrophic dens were examined in the sagittally cut section. RESULTS: After posterior decompression surgery, cervical myelopathy in the patient subsided. Myelopathy reappeared 4 years after surgery. Imaging studies showed osteoarthritis of the atlantodental joint, hypertrophic dens, and degeneration of the cruciate ligament. In the second surgery, transoral removal of the dens with posterior occipitocervical fusion was performed. Histologic studies showed thickening of the cortical bone of the anterior and cranial parts of the dens. The apical portion, which was the insertion portion of the ala ligaments, showed degenerative changes of tide marks. CONCLUSION: Atlantoaxial instability and enthesopathy were probably the causes of the hypertrophic changes of the dens in this case.
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ranking = 0.44239939706297
keywords = block
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4/18. Diagnostic ultrasonography of the ulnar nerve in cubital tunnel syndrome.

    Thirty-two elbows in 31 patients diagnosed as having cubital tunnel syndrome underwent ultrasonographic examination to assess morphological changes in the ulnar nerve and its surrounding tissues. On longitudinal images, the site of constriction due to the fibrous band and proximal swelling of the nerve were observed by ultrasonography and were confirmed intraoperatively. On axial images, the lengths of the major axis [7.2 (SD 1.6) mm] and the minor axis [3.7 (0.9) mm] of the nerve at the medial epicondyle were greater than those in normal subjects. There was a correlation between the stage of ulnar nerve palsy and the diameter of the major axis. Preoperatively, ganglia were detected by ultrasonography in the cubital tunnel in three cases and an anconeus epitrochlearis muscle in two.
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ranking = 8
keywords = nerve
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5/18. Cervical osteophytes presenting as unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia.

    Any process involving either the vagus nerve, its recurrent laryngeal branch or the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve may cause paralysis of the vocal fold. The most common cause is neoplasm. Clinically, the patients often present with a hoarse, breathy voice as well as symptoms of aspiration. The following represents a unique case of unilateral vocal fold paralysis and dysphagia caused by a degenerative disease of the cervical spine, resluting in extrinsic compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
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ranking = 3
keywords = nerve
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6/18. Location and clinical implications of high-degree atrioventricular block during dipyridamole infusion: a case report.

    We describe a patient with bifascicular block, who developed transient high-degree atrioventricular block during dipyridamole infusion. This patient was subsequently found to have significant His-Purkinje disease at electrophysiology study, and underwent permanent pacemaker implantation. Spontaneous atrioventricular block was documented during follow-up. This case report raises the issue of dipyridamole safety in patients with intraventricular conduction defects, and contributes an additional mechanism to the possible explanation of dipyridamole-induced atrioventricular block.
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ranking = 3.5391951765037
keywords = block
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7/18. osteophyte at the sacroiliac joint as a cause of sciatica: a report of four cases.

    Four cases of sciatica due to osteophytes impinging on the sciatic nerve at the sacroiliac joint are reported. Of these 4 cases, 2 were treated conservatively and the other 2 required surgical excision of the osteophyte. The report highlights the importance of keeping this uncommon etiology in the differential diagnosis of sciatica.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nerve
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8/18. Neuropraxia of the cutaneous nerve of the cervical plexus after shoulder arthroscopy.

    This article presents uncommon cases of neuropraxia of the lesser occipital nerve and the greater auricular nerve after arthroscopic surgery of the shoulder in the beach-chair position under general anesthesia. The lesser occipital nerve and the greater auricular nerve are superficial ascending branches of the cervical plexus. These 2 superficial nerves may be easily vulnerable because of their superficial anatomic locations. We assumed that the severity of the neuropraxia of superficial branches of the cervical plexus was related to the degree of rotation and deviation of the head and neck, the duration of the procedure, and compression by head strap and elastic bandage used for fixing the head to the rectangular-shaped headrest of the beach-chair device. We recommend that during surgery in the beach-chair position, the auricle be protected and covered with cotton and gauze to avoid direct compression and the position of the head and neck be checked and corrected frequently. We hope for a new design of the headrest of the beach-chair device to prevent neuropraxia and to attach the head firmly and safely.
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ranking = 9
keywords = nerve
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9/18. Painful onset of intrathecal blockade.

    A case is described in which a woman with well controlled epilepsy and minor abnormalities of peripheral nerve function in the lower limbs experienced intense pain during the onset of a spinal anaesthetic for operation on burns on her thighs. Possible mechanisms and treatments are discussed.
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ranking = 2.7695975882519
keywords = nerve, block
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10/18. Spinal lesions simulating hip joint disorders.

    In three patients pain in the groin and thigh which was initially attributed to either a malfunctioning hip prosthesis or osteoarthritic hip, was shown to arise in the spine. All patients had positive myelograms and one had electromyographic evidence of nerve root compression. Referred pain from the spine must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of pain thought to be arising from a hip replacement.
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keywords = nerve
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